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Pediatric Surgery Procedure Explanation

Abdominal Wall Defect
Gastroschisis is an abdominal wall defect (opening) at the base of the umbilical cord that allows intestine (bowel) and other abdominal contents to come outside the body before birth. Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect (opening) of the umbilical ring (belly button) that allows intestines and other abdominal contents to grow outside the body into a translucent (see through) sac before birth.

Children with appendicitis usually first complain of pain around their umbilicus (belly button) and do not want to eat. The pain gradually moves to the right lower part of the abdomen. There may be nausea, vomiting and a small amount of diarrhea. Some children have a fever but not always.

Appendicostomy (ACE procedure)*
Children with certain medical problems may have trouble with bowel control. Bowel control problems may include fecal incontinence (soiling) or constipation. Some medical problems that cause fecal incontinence include anorectal malformations (imperforate anus), Hirschprung’s Disease, spinal cord problems, and constipation that continues even with medical treatment. An appendicostomy is an opening that a surgeon makes into the intestines, using the appendix, from outside the belly.

Biliary Atresia
Biliary atresia is a condition in which the ducts that connect the liver to the intestine and the gall bladder become scarred and blocked.

Brachial Cleft Cyst
A branchial cleft cyst is a common cyst that appears below the ear or along the side of the neck during early childhood. It is a leftover tube that usually goes away during development inside the womb. This type of cyst forms on its own before a baby is born.

Breast Disease
Breast disorders occurring in pediatric patients range from congenital conditions to neonatal infections and from benign disorders such as fibroadenoma in females and gynecomastia in males to breast carcinoma and rhabdomyosarcoma.

Central Line
A central line is a sterile tube placed in a large vein that goes to the heart. The IV medication, fluid and nutrition that a child needs will be given through a child’s central line.

Cholecystectomy is the surgical procedure to remove the gallbladder.

Choledochal Cyst
Choledochal cyst is a problem with the tubes (ducts) that carry bile from a child’s liver to the gallbladder and intestine. The tubes get bigger than normal (dilate), or pouches form on the tubes. This keeps bile from flowing well, which can cause liver problems.

Circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin (the skin covering the head of the penis). Typically the circumcision is performed soon after birth.

Cystic Hygroma
A cystic hygroma is a benign, painless cyst of early childhood. It is seen most commonly on the neck and under the arm, but can be located anywhere on the body. Cystic hygromas may get bigger as the child gets older. Another name for it is lymphangioma.

Dermoid Cyst
A dermoid cyst is a common, benign, painless cyst of childhood. It most commonly appears just under the skin near the eyebrow, but can also occur on the forehead, scalp, nose or jaw.

Diaphragmatic Hernias
Diaphragmatic Hernia repair is surgery to correct an opening or tear in a child’s diaphragm. This opening is called a hernia.

Duodenal Atresia*
Duodenal atresia (DA) is a birth defect. It is a blockage which affects the first part of the small intestine. An infant with duodenal atresia is born without a connection between the first and second parts of the intestines (duodenum and jejunum).

Endorectal Pull-Through for Hirschsprung’s Disease*
Hirschsprung’s Disease is a condition where children are missing the nerve cells (“ganglion cells”) within the wall of their colon or rectum. These cells are responsible for the normal wave-like motion of the bowel (peristalsis), and at the point where these cells are missing - the stool stops and a blockage (obstruction) occurs.

Esophageal Atresia & Tracheoesophageal Fistula*
Two development problems that make it impossible for a baby to eat or drink.

Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER)*
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the spilling of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus (the swallowing tube).

A gastrostomy is the creation of a new opening into the stomach.

Hirschsprung's Disease*
Hirschsprung’s Disease is a condition where children are missing the nerve cells (“ganglion cells”) within the wall of their colon or rectum.

A hydrocele is a collection of fluid in the sac within the scrotum. It is caused by an opening between the abdomen and the scrotum.

Inguinal Hernia Repair*
In infants, an inguinal hernia is most often caused by a protrusion of a loop or portion of intestine or a fold of membrane from the abdomen.

Imperforate Anus*
An anorectal malformation is a birth defect that affects the development of the anus, the urinary system and/or the sexual structures. This malformation can also be associated with defects of the spine, esophagus, trachea, kidneys, heart or limbs.

Intestinal Atresia*
Intestinal atresia is a malformation where there is a narrowing or absence of a portion of the intestine. This defect can either occur in the small or large intestine.

Intestinal Duplication Cysts
An abnormal portion of intestine which is attached to or intrinsic with the normal bowel. The cyst or duplicated bowel is typically lined with intestinal mucosa, but heterotopic (tissue from other areas of the body) may be found within it.

Intussusception is a condition where a section of bowel telescopes into a section of bowel right next to it causing an obstruction or blockage of the bowel.

Lobectomy of the Lung*
Lobectomy is a surgical operation where a lobe of the lung is removed.

Lymphadenopathy means enlargement of a lymph node. Infection is the most common reason for a lymph node to be enlarged. This is a normal reaction because lymph nodes are part of the immune system which fights infection.

Malrotation & Volvulus*
Malrotation is a condition that occurs when a baby is developing inside the mother. Before birth, the baby’s intestines are supposed to grow and then stick in a certain position so they cannot twist around inside the baby’s belly. With malrotation, the intestines do not stick in the right spot and get twisted. Volvulus is a kinking of the twisted intestines which cuts off their blood supply.

Pectus Excavatum/The "Nuss Procedure"*
Pectus excavatum is an abnormal growth of bone and cartilage of the chest wall resulting in a sunken appearance of the chest.

Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)
NEC is an inflammation of the bowel that makes blisters in the bowel wall.

When the testicle is not in normal position by six months to one year of age, it should be surgically fixed.

Ovarian Lesion/Torsion
An ovarian lesion is a lump in the ovaries; it may be malignant or benign. Ovarian torsion is the twisting of the ovary due to the influence of another condition or disease.

Pilonidal cyst
A pilonidal cyst is a painful and infected cyst created from body hair being forced into the skin by friction.

Pyloric Stenosis *
Pyloric stenosis is present when the muscle connecting the stomach to the intestine grows too large and thick. This muscle is called the pyloric muscle.

Skin and Soft Tissue Surgery
Skin and Soft Tissue Surgery is attention to skin lesions and lumps and bumps under the skin.

Solid Tumors
Neuroblastoma is a cancer of the sympathetic nervous system.

A splenectomy is the removal of the spleen from the upper left abdomen.

A thoracotomy is a surgical incision into the chest. It is done when the surgeon needs to operate on the lung or remove a mass near the lung.

Thyroglossal duct cyst
A common cyst that appears in the middle of the neck during early childhood.

Umbilical Hernia
An umbilical hernia occurs when bowel protrudes through an opening in the abdominal wall into the umbilicus (belly button).

Vascular and Lymphatic Malformations
Vascular and Lymphatic malformations are sometimes referred to as “lymphangiomas" and are composed of malformed, dilated channels filled with lymphatic fluid. Most lymphatic malformations are present at birth, or identified within the first two years of life. However, some may not be evident until adolescence or early adulthood.

*Cases that can be done with a minimally invasive technique.

Posted Date: April 2011