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During the past five decades, dramatic progress has been made in the development of curative therapy for pediatric malignancies. Long-term survival into adulthood is the expectation for 80% of children with access to contemporary therapies for pediatric malignancies. The therapy responsible for this survival can also produce adverse long-term health-related outcomes, referred to as "late effects," that manifest months to years after completion of cancer treatment. A variety of approaches have been used to advance knowledge about the very long-term morbidity associated with childhood cancer and its contribution to early mortality. These initiatives have utilized a spectrum of resources including investigation of data from population-based registries, self-reported outcomes provided through large-scale cohort studies, and information collected from medical assessments. Studies reporting outcomes in survivors who have been well characterized in regards to clinical status and treatment exposures, and comprehensively ascertained for specific effects through medical assessments, typically provide the highest quality of data to establish the occurrence and risk profiles for late cancer treatment-related toxicity. Regardless of study methodology, it is important to consider selection and participation bias of the cohort studies in the context of the findings reported.
Figure 1. Investigators from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), a retrospective multi-institutional cohort investigation that has been monitoring health outcomes of more than 20,000 long-term childhood cancer survivors for more than 15 years, estimated a cumulative incidence of 73.4% for at least one chronic health problem (grades 1–5) by age 40 years among the 10,397 adult participants (mean age, 26.6 years); more than 40% will experience a chronic condition that is severe, life-threatening, or fatal (grades 3–5). The risk of specific late effects in an individual is dependent upon the type and location of the cancer and therapeutic interventions undertaken to control the cancer. Oeffinger KC, Mertens AC, Sklar CA, et al.: Chronic health conditions in adult survivors of childhood cancer. N Engl J Med 355 (15): 1572-82, 2006. Copyright © 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Late effects are commonly experienced by adults who have survived childhood cancer and demonstrate an increasing prevalence associated with longer time elapsed from cancer diagnosis. Population-based studies support excess hospital-related morbidity among childhood cancer survivors compared with age- and gender-matched controls.[2,3,4,5] Research has clearly demonstrated that late effects contribute to a high burden of morbidity among adults treated for cancer during childhood, with 60% to almost 90% developing one or more chronic health conditions and 20% to 40% experiencing severe or life-threatening complications during adulthood.[2,3,6,7,8] Recognition of late effects, concurrent with advances in cancer biology, radiological sciences, and supportive care, has resulted in a change in the prevalence and spectrum of treatment effects. In an effort to reduce and prevent late effects, contemporary therapy for the majority of pediatric malignancies has evolved to a risk-adapted approach that is assigned based on a variety of clinical, biological, and sometimes genetic factors. With the exception of survivors requiring intensive multimodality therapy for aggressive or refractory/relapsed malignancies, life-threatening treatment effects are relatively uncommon after contemporary therapy in early follow-up (up to 10 years after diagnosis). However, survivors still frequently experience life-altering morbidity related to effects of cancer treatment on endocrine, reproductive, musculoskeletal, and neurologic function.
Late effects also contribute to an excess risk of premature death among long-term survivors of childhood cancer. Several studies of very large cohorts of survivors have reported early mortality among individuals treated for childhood cancer compared with age- and gender-matched general population controls. Relapsed/refractory primary cancer remains the most frequent cause of death, followed by excess cause-specific mortality from subsequent primary cancers and cardiac and pulmonary toxicity.[9,10,11,12,13,14,15]; [Level of evidence: 3iA] Despite high premature morbidity rates, overall mortality has decreased over time.[17,18] This reduction is related to a decrease in deaths from the primary cancer without an associated increase in mortality from subsequent cancers or treatment-related toxicities. The former reflects improvements in therapeutic efficacy, and the latter reflects changes in therapy made subsequent to studying the causes of late effects. The expectation that mortality rates in survivors will continue to exceed those in the general population is based on the long-term sequelae that are likely to increase with attained age. If patients treated on therapeutic protocols are followed for long periods into adulthood, it will be possible to evaluate the excess lifetime mortality in relation to specific therapeutic interventions.
Monitoring for Late Effects
Recognition of both acute and late modality–specific toxicity has motivated investigations evaluating the pathophysiology and prognostic factors for cancer treatment–related effects. The results of these studies have played an important role in changing pediatric cancer therapeutic approaches and reducing treatment-related mortality among survivors treated in more recent eras.[17,18] These investigations have also informed the development of risk counseling and health screening recommendations of long-term survivors by identifying the clinical and treatment characteristics of those at highest risk for treatment complications. The common late effects of pediatric cancer encompass several broad domains including growth and development, organ function, reproductive capacity and health of offspring, and secondary carcinogenesis. In addition, survivors of childhood cancer may experience a variety of adverse psychosocial sequelae related to the primary cancer, its treatment, or maladjustment associated with the cancer experience.
Late sequelae of therapy for childhood cancer can be anticipated based on therapeutic exposures, but the magnitude of risk and the manifestations in an individual patient are influenced by numerous factors. Factors that should be considered in the risk assessment for a given late effect include the following:
Resources to Support Survivor Care
The need for long-term follow-up for childhood cancer survivors is supported by the American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, the International Society of Pediatric Oncology, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Children's Oncology Group (COG), and the Institute of Medicine. Specifically, a risk-based medical follow-up is recommended, which includes a systematic plan for lifelong screening, surveillance, and prevention that incorporates risk estimates based on the previous cancer, cancer therapy, genetic predisposition, lifestyle behaviors, and comorbid conditions.[19,20] Part of long-term follow-up should also be focused on appropriate screening of educational and vocational progress. Specific treatments for childhood cancer, especially those that directly impact nervous system structures, may result in sensory, motor, and neurocognitive deficits that may have adverse consequences on functional status, educational attainment, and future vocational opportunities. A Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) investigation observed that treatment with cranial radiation doses of 25 Gy or higher was associated with higher odds of unemployment (health related: odds ratio [OR] = 3.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.54–4.74; seeking work: OR = 1.77; 95% CI, 1.15–2.71). Unemployed survivors reported higher levels of poor physical functioning than employed survivors, had lower education and income, and were more likely to be publicly insured than unemployed siblings. These data emphasize the importance of facilitating survivor access to remedial services, which has been demonstrated to have a positive impact on education achievement, which may in turn enhance vocational opportunities.
In addition to risk-based screening for medical late effects, the impact of health behaviors on cancer-related health risks should also be emphasized. Health-promoting behaviors should be stressed for survivors of childhood cancer, as targeted educational efforts appear to be worthwhile.[24,25,26,27] Smoking, excess alcohol use, and illicit drug use increase risk of organ toxicity and, potentially, subsequent neoplasms. Unhealthy dietary practices and sedentary lifestyle may exacerbate treatment-related metabolic and cardiovascular complications. Proactively addressing unhealthy and risky behaviors is pertinent, as several research investigations confirm that long-term survivors use tobacco and alcohol and have inactive lifestyles at higher rates than is ideal given their increased risk of cardiac, pulmonary, and metabolic late effects.[28,29,30]
Unfortunately, the majority of childhood cancer survivors do not receive recommended risk-based care. The CCSS reported that 88.8% of survivors were receiving some form of medical care; however, only 31.5% reported receiving care that focused on their prior cancer (survivor-focused care), and 17.8% reported receiving survivor-focused care that included advice about risk reduction and discussion or ordering of screening tests. Among the same cohort, surveillance for new cases of cancer was very low in survivors at the highest risk for colon, breast, or skin cancer, suggesting that survivors and their physicians need education about their risks and recommended surveillance. Health insurance access appears to play an important role in access to risk-based survivor care. In a related CCSS study, uninsured survivors were less likely than those privately insured to report a cancer-related visit (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75–0.91) or a cancer center visit (adjusted RR = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71–0.98). Uninsured survivors had lower levels of utilization in all measures of care compared with privately insured survivors. In contrast, publicly insured survivors were more likely to report a cancer-related visit (adjusted RR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.11–1.35) or a cancer center visit (adjusted RR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.18–1.70) than were privately insured survivors. Overall, lack of health insurance remains a significant concern for survivors of childhood cancer because of health issues, unemployment, and other societal factors. Legislation, like the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act legislation, has improved access and retention of health insurance among survivors, although the quality and limitations associated with these policies have not been well studied.[33,34]
Transition of Survivor Care
Transition of care from the pediatric to the adult health care setting is necessary for most childhood cancer survivors in the United States. When available, multidisciplinary long-term follow-up (LTFU) programs in the pediatric cancer center work collaboratively with community physicians to provide care for childhood cancer survivors. This type of shared-care has been proposed as the optimal model to facilitate coordination between the cancer center oncology team and community physician groups providing survivor care. An essential service of LTFU programs is the organization of an individualized survivorship care plan that includes details about therapeutic interventions undertaken for childhood cancer and their potential health risks, personalized health screening recommendations, and information about lifestyle factors that modify risks. For survivors who have not been provided with this information, the COG offers a template that can be used by survivors to organize a personal treatment summary (see the COG Survivorship Guidelines Appendix 1).
To facilitate survivor and provider access to succinct information to guide risk-based care, COG investigators have organized a compendium of exposure- and risk-based health surveillance recommendations with the goal of standardizing the care of childhood cancer survivors. The COG Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers are appropriate for asymptomatic survivors presenting for routine exposure-based medical follow-up 2 or more years after completion of therapy. Patient education materials called ‘‘Health Links'' provide detailed information on guideline-specific topics to enhance health maintenance and promotion among this population of cancer survivors. Multidisciplinary system-based (e.g., cardiovascular, neurocognitive, and reproductive) task forces who are responsible for monitoring the literature, evaluating guideline content, and providing recommendations for guideline revisions as new information becomes available have also published several comprehensive reviews that address specific late effects of childhood cancer.[37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45] Information concerning late effects is summarized in tables throughout this summary.
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|9.||Armstrong GT, Liu Q, Yasui Y, et al.: Late mortality among 5-year survivors of childhood cancer: a summary from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Oncol 27 (14): 2328-38, 2009.|
|10.||Bhatia S, Robison LL, Francisco L, et al.: Late mortality in survivors of autologous hematopoietic-cell transplantation: report from the Bone Marrow Transplant Survivor Study. Blood 105 (11): 4215-22, 2005.|
|11.||Dama E, Pastore G, Mosso ML, et al.: Late deaths among five-year survivors of childhood cancer. A population-based study in Piedmont Region, Italy. Haematologica 91 (8): 1084-91, 2006.|
|12.||Lawless SC, Verma P, Green DM, et al.: Mortality experiences among 15+ year survivors of childhood and adolescent cancers. Pediatr Blood Cancer 48 (3): 333-8, 2007.|
|13.||MacArthur AC, Spinelli JJ, Rogers PC, et al.: Mortality among 5-year survivors of cancer diagnosed during childhood or adolescence in British Columbia, Canada. Pediatr Blood Cancer 48 (4): 460-7, 2007.|
|14.||Möller TR, Garwicz S, Perfekt R, et al.: Late mortality among five-year survivors of cancer in childhood and adolescence. Acta Oncol 43 (8): 711-8, 2004.|
|15.||Tukenova M, Guibout C, Hawkins M, et al.: Radiation therapy and late mortality from second sarcoma, carcinoma, and hematological malignancies after a solid cancer in childhood. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 80 (2): 339-46, 2011.|
|16.||Reulen RC, Winter DL, Frobisher C, et al.: Long-term cause-specific mortality among survivors of childhood cancer. JAMA 304 (2): 172-9, 2010.|
|17.||Armstrong GT, Pan Z, Ness KK, et al.: Temporal trends in cause-specific late mortality among 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. J Clin Oncol 28 (7): 1224-31, 2010.|
|18.||Yeh JM, Nekhlyudov L, Goldie SJ, et al.: A model-based estimate of cumulative excess mortality in survivors of childhood cancer. Ann Intern Med 152 (7): 409-17, W131-8, 2010.|
|19.||Landier W, Bhatia S, Eshelman DA, et al.: Development of risk-based guidelines for pediatric cancer survivors: the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines from the Children's Oncology Group Late Effects Committee and Nursing Discipline. J Clin Oncol 22 (24): 4979-90, 2004.|
|20.||Oeffinger KC, Hudson MM: Long-term complications following childhood and adolescent cancer: foundations for providing risk-based health care for survivors. CA Cancer J Clin 54 (4): 208-36, 2004 Jul-Aug.|
|21.||Hudson MM, Mulrooney DA, Bowers DC, et al.: High-risk populations identified in Childhood Cancer Survivor Study investigations: implications for risk-based surveillance. J Clin Oncol 27 (14): 2405-14, 2009.|
|22.||Kirchhoff AC, Leisenring W, Krull KR, et al.: Unemployment among adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. Med Care 48 (11): 1015-25, 2010.|
|23.||Mitby PA, Robison LL, Whitton JA, et al.: Utilization of special education services and educational attainment among long-term survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer 97 (4): 1115-26, 2003.|
|24.||Cox CL, McLaughlin RA, Rai SN, et al.: Adolescent survivors: a secondary analysis of a clinical trial targeting behavior change. Pediatr Blood Cancer 45 (2): 144-54, 2005.|
|25.||Cox CL, McLaughlin RA, Steen BD, et al.: Predicting and modifying substance use in childhood cancer survivors: application of a conceptual model. Oncol Nurs Forum 33 (1): 51-60, 2006.|
|26.||Cox CL, Montgomery M, Oeffinger KC, et al.: Promoting physical activity in childhood cancer survivors: results from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer 115 (3): 642-54, 2009.|
|27.||Cox CL, Montgomery M, Rai SN, et al.: Supporting breast self-examination in female childhood cancer survivors: a secondary analysis of a behavioral intervention. Oncol Nurs Forum 35 (3): 423-30, 2008.|
|28.||Nathan PC, Ford JS, Henderson TO, et al.: Health behaviors, medical care, and interventions to promote healthy living in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort. J Clin Oncol 27 (14): 2363-73, 2009.|
|29.||Schultz KA, Chen L, Chen Z, et al.: Health and risk behaviors in survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 55 (1): 157-64, 2010.|
|30.||Tercyak KP, Donze JR, Prahlad S, et al.: Multiple behavioral risk factors among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer in the Survivor Health and Resilience Education (SHARE) program. Pediatr Blood Cancer 47 (6): 825-30, 2006.|
|31.||Nathan PC, Ness KK, Mahoney MC, et al.: Screening and surveillance for second malignant neoplasms in adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. Ann Intern Med 153 (7): 442-51, 2010.|
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|34.||Pui CH, Cheng C, Leung W, et al.: Extended follow-up of long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med 349 (7): 640-9, 2003.|
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|36.||Eshelman D, Landier W, Sweeney T, et al.: Facilitating care for childhood cancer survivors: integrating children's oncology group long-term follow-up guidelines and health links in clinical practice. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs 21 (5): 271-80, 2004 Sep-Oct.|
|37.||Castellino S, Muir A, Shah A, et al.: Hepato-biliary late effects in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 54 (5): 663-9, 2010.|
|38.||Henderson TO, Amsterdam A, Bhatia S, et al.: Systematic review: surveillance for breast cancer in women treated with chest radiation for childhood, adolescent, or young adult cancer. Ann Intern Med 152 (7): 444-55; W144-54, 2010.|
|39.||Jones DP, Spunt SL, Green D, et al.: Renal late effects in patients treated for cancer in childhood: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 51 (6): 724-31, 2008.|
|40.||Liles A, Blatt J, Morris D, et al.: Monitoring pulmonary complications in long-term childhood cancer survivors: guidelines for the primary care physician. Cleve Clin J Med 75 (7): 531-9, 2008.|
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|45.||Wasilewski-Masker K, Kaste SC, Hudson MM, et al.: Bone mineral density deficits in survivors of childhood cancer: long-term follow-up guidelines and review of the literature. Pediatrics 121 (3): e705-13, 2008.|
Subsequent neoplasms (SNs), which may be benign or malignant, are defined as histologically distinct neoplasms developing at least 2 months after completion of treatment for the primary malignancy. Childhood cancer survivors have an increased risk of developing SNs that varies by host factors (e.g., genetics, immune function, hormone status), primary cancer therapy, environmental exposures, and lifestyle factors. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) reported a 30-year cumulative incidence of 20.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.1%–21.8%) for all SNs, 7.9% (95% CI, 7.2%–8.5%) for SNs with malignant histologies (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]), 9.1% (95% CI, 8.1%–10.1%) for NMSC, and 3.1% (95% CI, 2.5%–3.8%) for meningioma. This represents a sixfold increased risk of SNs among cancer survivors, compared with the general population. SNs are the leading cause of nonrelapse late mortality (standardized mortality ratio = 15.2; 95% CI, 13.9–16.6). The risk of SNs remains elevated for more than 30 years from diagnosis of the primary cancer. Moreover, prolonged follow-up has established that multiple SNs are common among aging childhood cancer survivors.
The development of an SN is likely multi-factorial in etiology and results from combinations of influences including gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. Outcome following the diagnosis of an SN is variable as treatment for some histological subtypes may be compromised if childhood cancer therapy included cumulative doses of agents and modalities at the threshold of tissue tolerance. The incidence and type of SNs differ with the primary cancer diagnosis, type of therapy received, and presence of genetic conditions. Unique associations with specific therapeutic exposures have resulted in the classification of SNs into the following two distinct groups:
Characteristics of t-MDS/AML include a short latency (<3 years from primary cancer diagnosis) and association with alkylating agents and/or topoisomerase II inhibitors. Although the long-term risk of subsequent leukemia more than 15 years from primary diagnosis remains significantly elevated (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 3.5; 95% CI, 1.9–6.0), these events are relatively rare with an absolute excess risk of 0.02 cases per 1000 person-years. Solid SNs have a strong and well-defined association with radiation and are characterized by a latency that exceeds 10 years. Furthermore, the risk of solid SNs continues to climb with increasing follow-up, whereas the risk of t-MDS/AML plateaus after 10 to 15 years.
Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (t-MDS/AML) has been reported after treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and sarcomas, with the cumulative incidence approaching 2% at 15 years after therapy.[7,8,9,10] Some cases of late recurrence among childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been shown to represent cases of new primary leukemia based on TCR gene rearrangement.[11,12] t-MDS/AML is a clonal disorder characterized by distinct chromosomal changes. The following two types are recognized by the World Health Organization classification:
Therapy-Related Solid Neoplasms
Therapy-related solid SNs represent 80% of all SNs and demonstrate a strong relationship with ionizing radiation. The histological subtypes of solid SNs encompass a neoplastic spectrum ranging from benign and low-grade malignant lesions (e.g., NMSC, meningiomas) to high-grade malignancies (e.g., breast cancers, glioblastomas).[1,10,15,16,17] SN solid tumors in childhood cancer survivors most commonly involve the breast, thyroid, central nervous system (CNS), bones, and soft tissues.[1,7,10,16,18] With more prolonged follow-up of cohorts of adults surviving childhood cancer, epithelial neoplasms involving the gastrointestinal tract and lung have emerged.[1,7,15] Benign and low-grade SNs, including NMSCs and meningiomas, have also been observed with increasing prevalence in survivors treated with radiation for childhood cancer.[1,16,17]
The risk of solid SNs is highest when the exposure occurs at a younger age, increases with the total dose of radiation, and with increasing follow-up after radiation. Some of the well-established radiation-related solid SNs include the following:
Subsequent Neoplasms and Genetic Susceptibility
Literature clearly supports the role of chemotherapy and radiation in the development of SNs. However, interindividual variability exists, suggesting that genetic variation has a role in susceptibility to genotoxic exposures, or that genetic susceptibility syndrome confers an increased risk of cancer, such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Previous studies have demonstrated that childhood cancer survivors with either a family history of cancer, but more so, presence of Li-Fraumeni syndrome, carry an increased risk of developing an SN.[40,41] The risk of SNs could potentially be modified by mutations in high-penetrance genes that lead to these serious genetic diseases (e.g., Li-Fraumeni syndrome). However, the attributable risk is expected to be very small because of the extremely low prevalence of mutations in high-penetrance genes. Table 1 below summarizes the spectrum of neoplasms, affected genes, and Mendelian mode of inheritance of selected syndromes of inherited cancer predisposition.
|Syndrome||Major Tumor Types||Affected Gene||Mode of Inheritance|
|WAGR = Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, mental retardation.|
|a Adapted from Strahm et al.|
|Adenomatous polyposis of the colon||Colon, hepatoblastoma, intestinal cancers, stomach, thyroid cancer||APC||Dominant|
|Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome||Adrenal carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms tumor||CDKN1C/NSD1||Dominant|
|Bloom syndrome||Leukemia, lymphoma, skin cancer||BLM||Recessive|
|Fanconi anemia||Gynecological tumors, leukemia, squamous cell carcinoma||FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG||Recessive|
|Juvenile polyposis syndrome||Gastrointestinal tumors||SMAD4/DPC4||Dominant|
|Li-Fraumeni syndrome||Adrenocortical carcinoma, brain tumor, breast carcinoma, leukemia, osteosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma||TP53||Dominant|
|Multiple endocrine neoplasia 1||Pancreatic islet cell tumor, parathyroid adenoma, pituitary adenoma||MEN1||Dominant|
|Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2||Medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma||RET||Dominant|
|Neurofibromatosis type 1||Neurofibroma, optic pathway glioma, peripheral nerve sheath tumor||NF1||Dominant|
|Neurofibromatosis type 2||Vestibular schwannoma||NF2||Dominant|
|Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome||Basal cell carcinoma, medulloblastoma||PTCH||Dominant|
|Peutz-Jeghers syndrome||Intestinal cancers, ovarian carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma||STK11||Dominant|
|Tuberous sclerosis||Hamartoma, renal angiomyolipoma, renal cell carcinoma||TSC1/TSC2||Dominant|
|von Hippel-Lindau syndrome||Hemangioblastoma, pheochromocytoma, renal cell carcinoma, retinal and central nervous tumors||VHL||Dominant|
|WAGR syndrome||Gonadoblastoma, Wilms tumor||WT1||Dominant|
|Wilms tumor syndrome||Wilms tumor||WT1||Dominant|
|Xeroderma pigmentosum||Leukemia, melanoma||XPA, XPB, XPC, XPD, XPE, XPF, XPG, POLH||Recessive|
Drug-metabolizing enzymes and DNA repair polymorphisms
The interindividual variability in risk of SNs is more likely related to common polymorphisms in low-penetrance genes that regulate the availability of active drug metabolites or are responsible for DNA repair. Gene-environment interactions may magnify subtle functional differences resulting from genetic variations.
Metabolism of genotoxic agents occurs in two phases. Phase I involves activation of substrates into highly reactive electrophilic intermediates that can damage DNA, a reaction principally performed by the cytochrome p450 (CYP) family of enzymes. Phase II enzymes (conjugation) function to inactivate genotoxic substrates. The phase II proteins comprise the glutathione S-transferase (GST), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), and others. The balance between the two sets of enzymes is critical to the cellular response to xenobiotics; for example, high activity of a phase I enzyme and low activity of a phase II enzyme can result in DNA damage.
DNA repair polymorphisms
DNA repair mechanisms protect somatic cells from mutations in tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes that can lead to cancer initiation and progression. An individual's DNA repair capacity appears to be genetically determined. A number of DNA repair genes contain polymorphic variants, resulting in large interindividual variations in DNA repair capacity. Evaluation of the contribution of polymorphisms influencing DNA repair to the risk of SN represents an active area of research.
Screening and Follow-up for Subsequent Neoplasms
Vigilant screening is important for those at risk. Because of the relatively small size of the pediatric cancer survivor population and the prevalence and time to onset of therapy-related complications, undertaking clinical studies to assess the impact of screening recommendations on the morbidity and mortality associated with the late effect is not feasible. However, well-conducted studies on large populations of childhood cancer survivors have provided compelling evidence linking specific therapeutic exposures and late effects. This evidence has been used by several national and international cooperative groups (Scottish Collegiate Guidelines Network, Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group, Children's Oncology Group [COG]) to develop consensus-based clinical practice guidelines to increase awareness and standardize the immediate care needs of medically vulnerable childhood cancer survivors. The COG Guidelines employ a hybrid approach that is both evidence-based (utilizing established associations between therapeutic exposures and late effects to identify high-risk categories) and grounded in the collective clinical experience of experts (matching the magnitude of the risk with the intensity of the screening recommendations). The screening recommendations in these guidelines represent a statement of consensus from a panel of experts in the late effects of pediatric cancer treatment.
In regard to screening for malignant SNs recommended by the COG Guidelines, certain high-risk populations of childhood cancer survivors merit heightened surveillance due to predisposing host, behavioral, or therapeutic factors.
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|14.||Pedersen-Bjergaard J, Philip P: Balanced translocations involving chromosome bands 11q23 and 21q22 are highly characteristic of myelodysplasia and leukemia following therapy with cytostatic agents targeting at DNA-topoisomerase II. Blood 78 (4): 1147-8, 1991.|
|15.||Bassal M, Mertens AC, Taylor L, et al.: Risk of selected subsequent carcinomas in survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Oncol 24 (3): 476-83, 2006.|
|16.||Neglia JP, Robison LL, Stovall M, et al.: New primary neoplasms of the central nervous system in survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 98 (21): 1528-37, 2006.|
|17.||Perkins JL, Liu Y, Mitby PA, et al.: Nonmelanoma skin cancer in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. J Clin Oncol 23 (16): 3733-41, 2005.|
|18.||Ronckers CM, Sigurdson AJ, Stovall M, et al.: Thyroid cancer in childhood cancer survivors: a detailed evaluation of radiation dose response and its modifiers. Radiat Res 166 (4): 618-28, 2006.|
|19.||Kenney LB, Yasui Y, Inskip PD, et al.: Breast cancer after childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Ann Intern Med 141 (8): 590-7, 2004.|
|20.||Travis LB, Hill D, Dores GM, et al.: Cumulative absolute breast cancer risk for young women treated for Hodgkin lymphoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 97 (19): 1428-37, 2005.|
|21.||Travis LB, Hill DA, Dores GM, et al.: Breast cancer following radiotherapy and chemotherapy among young women with Hodgkin disease. JAMA 290 (4): 465-75, 2003.|
|22.||van Leeuwen FE, Klokman WJ, Stovall M, et al.: Roles of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and hormonal factors in breast cancer following Hodgkin's disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 95 (13): 971-80, 2003.|
|23.||O'Brien MM, Donaldson SS, Balise RR, et al.: Second malignant neoplasms in survivors of pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with low-dose radiation and chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 28 (7): 1232-9, 2010.|
|24.||Inskip PD, Robison LL, Stovall M, et al.: Radiation dose and breast cancer risk in the childhood cancer survivor study. J Clin Oncol 27 (24): 3901-7, 2009.|
|25.||Dores GM, Anderson WF, Beane Freeman LE, et al.: Risk of breast cancer according to clinicopathologic features among long-term survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with radiotherapy. Br J Cancer 103 (7): 1081-4, 2010.|
|26.||Sklar C, Whitton J, Mertens A, et al.: Abnormalities of the thyroid in survivors of Hodgkin's disease: data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85 (9): 3227-32, 2000.|
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|28.||Bhatti P, Veiga LH, Ronckers CM, et al.: Risk of second primary thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for a childhood cancer in a large cohort study: an update from the childhood cancer survivor study. Radiat Res 174 (6): 741-52, 2010.|
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Radiation, chemotherapy, and biologic agents, both independently and in combination, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in survivors of childhood cancer; in fact, cardiovascular death has been reported to account for 26% of the excess absolute risk of death by 45 or more years from diagnosis in adults who survived childhood cancers, and is the leading cause of noncancer mortality in select cancers such as Hodgkin lymphoma (HL).[1,2] During the 30 years after cancer treatment, survivors are eight times more likely to die from cardiac causes and 15 times more likely to be diagnosed with congestive heart failure (CHF) than the general population.[3,4] Therapeutic exposures conferring the highest risk are the anthracyclines (doxorubicin, daunorubicin, idarubicin, epirubicin, and mitoxantrone) and thoracic radiation. The risks to the heart are related to cumulative anthracycline dose, method of administration, amount of radiation delivered to different depths of the heart, volume and specific areas of the heart irradiated, total and fractional irradiation dose, age at exposure, latency period, and gender.
The effects of thoracic radiation therapy are difficult to separate from those of anthracyclines because few children undergo thoracic radiation therapy without the use of anthracyclines. However, several reports do allow some segregation of the effects of radiation from those of chemotherapy. Of note, the pathogenesis of injury differs, with radiation primarily affecting the fine vasculature of the heart and anthracyclines directly damaging myocytes.[5,6] Late effects of radiation to the heart include the following:[7,8,9]
These cardiac toxic effects are related to total radiation dose, individual radiation fraction size, and the volume of the heart that is exposed. Modern radiation techniques allow a reduction in the volume of cardiac tissue incidentally exposed to the higher radiation doses. This may translate into a reduced risk for adverse cardiac events.
Among these factors, cumulative dose appears to be the most significant in regard to risk of CHF, which develops in less than 5% of survivors after anthracycline exposure of less than 300 mg/m2, approaches 15% at doses between 300 and 500 mg/m2, and exceeds 30% for doses greater than 600 mg/m2.[5,12,21,22]
Schedule of administration of doxorubicin may influence risk of cardiomyopathy. One study looked at the effect of continuous (48 hour) versus bolus (1 hour) infusions of doxorubicin in 121 children who received a cumulative dose of 360 mg/m2 for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and found no difference in the degree or spectrum of cardiotoxicity in the two groups. Because the follow-up time in this study was relatively short, it is not yet clear whether the frequency of progressive cardiomyopathy will differ between the two groups over time. Another study compared cardiac dysfunction in 113 children who received doxorubicin either by single-dose infusion or by a consecutive divided daily-dose schedule. The divided-dose patients received one-third of the total cycle dose over 20 minutes for 3 consecutive days. Patients treated according to a single-dose schedule received the cycle dose as a 20-minute infusion. There was no significant difference in the incidence of cardiac dysfunction between the divided-dose and single-dose infusion groups. Earlier studies in adults have shown decreased cardiotoxicity with prolonged infusion; thus, further evaluation of this question is warranted.
Prevention or amelioration of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy is clearly important because the continued use of doxorubicin is required in cancer therapy. Dexrazoxane (DZR) is a bisdioxopiperazine compound that readily enters cells and is subsequently hydrolyzed to form a chelating agent. Evidence supports its capacity to mitigate cardiac toxicity in patients treated with doxorubicin.[24,25,26,27,28] Studies suggest that DZR is safe and does not interfere with chemotherapeutic efficacy. There is a single-study experience suggesting that there could be an increase in malignancies when multiple topoisomerase inhibitors are administered in close proximity; other studies, however, do not show increased risk of malignancies.[28,29,30,31] However, at this time, this should not preclude treatment with DZR.[32,33]
Two closed Pediatric Oncology Group therapeutic phase III studies for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) [33,34] measured myocardial toxicity clinically and sequentially over time by echocardiography and electrocardiography, and by determination of levels of cardiac troponin T (cTnT), a protein that is elevated after myocardial damage.[27,35,36,37,38,39]
The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril has been used in the attempt to ameliorate doxorubicin-induced LV dysfunction. Although a transient improvement in LV function and structure was noted in 18 children, LV wall thinning continued to deteriorate; thus the intervention with enalapril was not considered successful. For this reason, studies to date in doxorubicin-treated cancer survivors have not demonstrated a benefit of enalapril in preventing progressive cardiac toxicity.[25,26]
A number of studies have examined cardiac function after radiation therapy and doxorubicin exposure using cardiopulmonary exercise stress tests and have found abnormalities in exercise endurance, cardiac output, aerobic capacity, echocardiography during exercise testing, and ectopic rhythms.[40,41,42,43,44] Specific abnormalities of cardiac function may progress over time after therapy, as suggested by a report targeting parameters of left ventricular (LV) contractility. It remains unclear whether these abnormalities will have clinical impact. Asymptomatic cardiac toxic effects can be demonstrated in patients who have normal clinical assessments, and abnormalities can be linked to lower self-reported health and New York Heart Association cardiac function scores.[46,47] Clearly, additional studies with long-term follow-up will be necessary to determine optimal screening modalities and frequencies.
Prevalence, Clinical Manifestations, and Risk Factors for Cardiac Toxicity
Children's Cancer Survivors Study (CCSS) investigators detailed dose-response evaluations for both radiation therapy and anthracycline administration to analyze risks (self-reported) of CHF, myocardial infarction (MI), pericardial disease, and valvular abnormalities (see Figure 2).
Figure 2. Cumulative incidence of cardiac disorders among childhood cancer survivors by average cardiac radiation dose. BMJ 2009; 339:b4606. © 2009 by British Medical Journal Publishing Group.
Compared with siblings, survivors of childhood cancer were significantly more likely to report CHF (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4–9.6), MI (HR = 5.0; 95% CI, 2.3–10.4), pericardial disease (HR = 6.3; 95 % CI, 3.3–11.9), or valvular abnormalities (HR = 4.8; 95 % CI, 3.0–7.6). Cardiac radiation exposure of 15 Gy or more increased the risk of CHF, MI, pericardial disease, and valvular abnormalities by twofold to sixfold compared with nonirradiated survivors. There was no evidence for increased risk following doses less than 5 Gy, and slight elevations in risk were not statistically significant following doses between 5 to 15 Gy. Exposure to 250 mg/m2 or more of anthracyclines also increased the risk of CHF, pericardial disease, and valvular abnormalities by two to five times compared with survivors who had not been exposed to anthracyclines. The cumulative incidence of adverse cardiac outcomes in childhood cancer survivors continued to increase up to 30 years after diagnosis and ranged from about 2% to slightly over 4% overall, but to much higher cumulative percentages for those receiving the highest cardiac radiation doses and the highest cumulative dose of anthracyclines.
A study of 4,122 5-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed before 1986 in France and the United Kingdom also provides evidence for an association between radiation dose and risk of cardiovascular disease. After 86,453 person-years of follow-up (average, 27 years), 603 deaths had occurred. The overall standardized mortality ratio was 8.3-fold (95% CI, 7.6–9.0) higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. Thirty-two patients had died of cardiovascular diseases, which is fivefold (95% CI, 3.3–6.7) more than expected. The risk of dying of cardiac diseases (n = 21) was significantly higher in individuals who had received a cumulative dose of anthracyclines greater than 360 mg/m2 (relative risk [RR] = 4.4; 95% CI, 1.3–15.3) and following an average radiation dose exceeding 5 Gy (RR = 12.5 for 5–14.9 Gy and RR = 25.1 for >15 Gy) to the heart. A linear relationship was found between the average dose of radiation to the heart and the risk of cardiac mortality (excess RR at 1 Gy, 60%).
Subclinical cardiac function was evaluated by a group from the Netherlands. Of 601 eligible adult 5-year childhood cancer survivors, 525 (87%) had an echocardiogram performed, of which 514 were evaluable for assessment of the left ventricular shortening fraction (LVSF). The median overall LVSF in the whole group of childhood cancer survivors was 33.1% (range, 13.0%–56.0%). Subclinical cardiac dysfunction (LVSF <30%) was identified in 139 patients (27%). In a multivariate linear regression model, LVSF was reduced with younger age at diagnosis, higher cumulative anthracycline dose, and radiation to the thorax. High-dose cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide were not associated with a reduction of LVSF.
Cardiovascular Disease in Select Cancer Subgroups
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) continues to be the pediatric malignancy associated with the greatest risk of cardiovascular disease, with a 13.1 excess absolute risk per 10,000 person years for cardiovascular death. Newer treatment approaches are specifically designed to reduce exposure to cardiotoxic agents (e.g., total anthracycline dose) and radiation dose and volume. Moreover, newer trials explore the safe elimination of radiation from primary therapy.
Data from the German-Austrian DAL-HD studies show a dose response for cardiac diseases in children treated for HL with combined radiation and anthracycline-based chemotherapy (cumulative doxorubicin dose was uniformly 160 mg/m2). The 25-year cumulative incidence of cardiac diseases was 3% with no radiation therapy, 5% after 20 Gy, 6% after 25 Gy, 10% after 30 Gy, and 21% after 36 Gy. An older study of 635 patients treated for childhood HL confirms the risks that occur after higher-dose radiation therapy. The actuarial risk of pericarditis requiring pericardiectomy was 4% at 17 years posttreatment (occurring only in children treated with higher radiation doses). Only 12 patients died of cardiac disease, including seven deaths from acute MI; however, these deaths occurred only in children treated with 42 Gy to 45 Gy. In an analysis of 48 asymptomatic patients treated for HL from 1970 to 1991 with mediastinal therapy (median dose 40 Gy) and screened for the presence of subclinical cardiac abnormalities, 43% had unsuspected valvular abnormalities, 75% had a conduction abnormality or arrhythmia, and 30% had reduced VO2 during exercise tests. These abnormalities were noted at a mean of 15.5 years posttherapy suggesting that survivors of HL treated with high doses of mediastinal radiation therapy require long-term cardiology follow-up. Among children treated with 15 Gy to 26 Gy, none developed radiation-associated cardiac problems.
The risk of delayed valvular and CAD after lower radiation doses requires additional study of patients followed for longer periods of time to definitively ascertain lifetime risk. Nontherapeutic risk factors for CAD—such as family history, obesity, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia—are likely to impact the frequency of disease.[7,8,53]
Brain tumor: A study of self-reported late effects among 1,607 survivors of childhood brain tumors  showed that 18% of survivors reported a heart or circulatory late effect. Risk was highest among those treated with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy compared with surgery and radiation therapy alone, suggesting a potential additive vascular injury from chemotherapy. Children who receive spinal radiation for treatment of central nervous system tumors have been demonstrated to show low maximal cardiac index on exercise testing and pathologic Q-waves in inferior leads on ECG testing, and higher posterior-wall stress.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML): In a study of ALL survivors reporting a chronic medical condition in the CCSS cohort, the risk of a cardiac condition was nearly sevenfold higher compared with the siblings. No significant association was identified based on radiation exposure. A similar analysis among AML survivors in the cohort found the 20-year cumulative incidence of cardiac disease to be 4.7%. It is noteworthy that adult survivors of childhood ALL have an increased prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance and may be at risk for developing diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, all known to be potent risk factors for premature cardiovascular disease.
Wilms tumor: A long-term follow-up study of Wilms tumor survivors reported a cumulative risk of CHF of 4.4% at 20 years for those who received doxorubicin as part of their initial therapy and 17.4% at 20 years when doxorubicin was received as part of therapy for relapsed disease. Risk factors for CHF in this cohort included female gender, lung irradiation with doses 20 Gy or higher, left-sided abdominal irradiation, and doxorubicin dosage of 300 mg/m2 or more.
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT): Cardiac complications after bone marrow transplantation may occur, with arrhythmia, pericarditis, and cardiomyopathy predominating, although many are either acute or subacute effects. High-dose cyclophosphamide clearly is a causative agent; total-body irradiation is a secondary contributing factor.[40,53,57] In a report from the Bone Marrow Transplant Survivors Study that compared 145 HCT survivors, 7,207 conventionally treated survivors, and 4,020 siblings from the CCSS cohort, median time from HCT to study participation was 11.0 years (range, 2.3–25.9 years). The prevalence of cardiovascular conditions (grades 3–5) was 4.8% in HCT survivors, versus 3.2% in conventionally treated CCSS survivors, and it was 0.5% (for grades 3–4) in the sibling control CCSS cohort. The RR was 0.5 (95% CI, 0.1–2.5) for the conventionally treated survivors versus HCT survivors, and 12.7 (95% CI, 5.4–30.0) for the HCT survivors versus siblings.
Vascular Disease/Cerebrovascular Accident
A spectrum of vascular morbidities may occur after radiation therapy used to treat malignancies such as lymphomas, head and neck cancers, and brain tumors. Specifically, carotid artery and cerebrovascular injury occur after cervical and central nervous system irradiation. French investigators observed a significant association with radiation dose to the brain and long-term cerebrovascular mortality among 4,227 five-year childhood cancer survivors (median follow-up, 29 years). Survivors who received more than 50 Gy to the prepontine cistern had an HR of 17.8 (95% CI, 4.4–73) of death from cerebrovascular disease compared with those who had not received radiation therapy or who had received less than 0.1 Gy in the prepontine cistern region. The RR for cerebrovascular accident (CVA [stroke]) in the CCSS cohort was almost tenfold higher compared with the sibling control group; notably, risks were highest among the adult survivors of childhood ALL, brain tumors, and HL.[60,61] Leukemia survivors were six times more likely to suffer a CVA compared with their siblings, whereas brain tumor survivors were 29 times more likely to suffer a CVA. Of the brain tumor cohort, 69 of 1,411 patients who had a history of radiation therapy reported a CVA (4.9%), with a cumulative incidence of 6.9% (95% CI, 4.47–9.33) at 25 years. Survivors exposed to cranial radiation therapy greater than 30 Gy had an increased risk for CVA, with the highest risk among those treated with greater than 50 Gy. Adult survivors of childhood HL who were treated with thoracic radiation therapy, including mediastinal and neck, had a 5.6-fold increased risk for CVA than their siblings (median dose 40 Gy). In another study from the Netherlands of 2,201 5-year survivors of HL (of whom 547 were younger than 21 years), and with median follow-up of 17.5 years, 96 patients developed cerebrovascular disease (55 CVA, 31 transient ischemic attacks [TIA], and 10 both CVA and TIA), with a median age at diagnosis of 52 years. Most ischemic events were from large-artery atherosclerosis (36%) or cardioembolism (24%). The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for CVA was 2.2, and for TIA it was 3.1. The cumulative incidence of ischemic CVA or TIA 30 years after HL treatment was 7%. For patients younger than 21 years, the SIR for CVA was 3.8, and for TIA it was 7.6. Radiation to the neck and mediastinum was an independent risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular disease (HR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.6) versus without radiation therapy. Treatment with chemotherapy was not associated with increased risk. It is noteworthy that hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were associated with the occurrence of ischemic cerebrovascular disease, whereas smoking and overweight were not. 
|Predisposing Therapy||Potential Cardiovascular Effects||Health Screening|
|DOE = dyspnea on exertion; SOB = shortness of breath.|
|Anthracyclines (daunorubicin, doxorubicin, idarubicin, epirubicin); mitoxantrone||Cardiomyopathy; arrhythmias; subclinical left ventricular dysfunction||History: SOB, DOE, orthopnea, chest pain, palpitations|
|Echocardiogram or other modality to evaluate left ventricular systolic function|
|Laboratory: lipid profile, consider troponin or brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level|
|Radiation impacting the heart||Congestive heart failure; cardiomyopathy; pericarditis/pericardial fibrosis; valvular disease; atherosclerotic heart disease/myocardial infarction; arrhythmia||History: SOB, DOE, orthopnea, chest pain, palpitations|
|Cardiovascular exam: signs of heart failure, arrhythmia, valve dysfunction|
|Echocardiogram or other modality to evaluate left ventricular systolic function|
|Laboratory: lipid profile|
|Radiation impacting vascular structures||Carotid or subclavian artery disease||History: transient/permanent neurological events|
|Cardiovascular exam: peripheral pulses, presence of bruits|
|Laboratory: lipid profile|
|Plant alkaloids (vinblastine, vincristine)||Vasospastic attacks (Raynaud's phenomena); autonomic dysfunction (e.g., monotonous pulse)||History: vasospasms of hands, feet, nose, lips, cheeks, or earlobes related to stress or cold temperatures|
|Exam of affected area|
|Platinum agents (cisplatin, carboplatin)||Dyslipidemia||Fasting lipid profile|
In general, survivors should be counseled regarding the cardiovascular benefits of maintaining healthy weight, adhering to a heart-healthy diet, participating in regular physical activity, and abstaining from smoking. Survivors should obtain medical clearance before engaging in extreme exercise programs. Clinicians should consider baseline and follow-up screening as needed for comorbid conditions that impact cardiovascular health.
Refer to the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers for cardiovascular late effects information including risk factors, evaluation, and health counseling.
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Neurocognitive late effects most commonly follow treatment of malignancies that require central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapies, such as cranial radiation, systemic therapy with high-dose methotrexate or cytarabine, or with intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy. Children with brain tumors or acute lymphoblastic leukemia are most likely to be affected. Risk factors for the development of neurocognitive side effects are female gender, young age at the time of treatment, higher radiation dose, and treatment with both cranial radiation and chemotherapy (systemic or intrathecal).[1,2,3,4]
Survival rates have increased over recent decades for children with brain tumors; however, long-term cognitive effects due to their illness and associated treatments are emerging. In childhood and adolescent brain tumor survivors, tumor site, treatment of hydrocephalus with a shunt, paralysis, auditory difficulties, or history of a stroke have emerged as risk factors for adverse neurocognitive effects.[5,6]
Cranial radiation therapy has been associated with the highest risk of long-term cognitive morbidity particularly in younger children. There is an established dose-response relationship with those getting higher-dose cranial radiation therapy consistently performing more poorly on intellectual measures. The negative impact of radiation treatment has been characterized by changes in intelligence quotient (IQ) scores, which have been noted to drop about 2 to 5 years after diagnosis and an attenuation of the decline 5 to 10 years afterward, followed by stabilization of the IQ scores 20 to 40 years after diagnosis.[8,9,10] The decline over time is typically reflective of the child's failure to acquire new abilities or information at a rate similar to peers, rather than a progressive loss of skills and knowledge. Affected children may experience information-processing deficits resulting in academic difficulties, and are prone to problems with receptive and expressive language, attention span, and visual and perceptual motor skills.[9,11,12] These changes in intellectual functioning may be partially explained by radiation-induced or chemotherapy-induced reduction of normal white matter volume as evaluated through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using lower doses of radiation and more targeted volumes have demonstrated improved results in neurocognitive effects of therapy.
Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms may predict patients with medulloblastoma who are more likely to experience neurocognitive toxicity secondary to radiation.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
One of the great medical success stories of the past generation is how advances in the treatment of ALL have dramatically improved survival. With the recognition that CNS relapse was common among children in bone marrow remission, presymptomatic CNS radiation and intrathecal chemotherapy were introduced into the treatment of children with ALL in the 1960s and 1970s. The increase in cure rates for children with ALL over the past decades has resulted in greater attention to the neurocognitive morbidity and quality of life of survivors. The goal of current ALL treatment is to minimize adverse late effects while maintaining high survival rates. Patients are stratified for treatment according to their risk of relapse. Cranial radiation is reserved for children (less than 20%) considered at high risk for CNS relapse.
Although low-, standard- and most high-risk patients currently are treated with chemotherapy-only protocols, the described neurocognitive effects for ALL patients are based on a heterogeneous treatment group of survivors in the past who were treated with combinations (simultaneously or sequentially) of intrathecal chemotherapy, radiation, and high-dose chemotherapy making it difficult to differentiate the impact of the individual components. In the future, more accurate data will be available as to the neurocognitive effects on survivors of childhood ALL treated with chemotherapy only.
ALL and cranial radiation
In survivors of ALL, cranial radiation therapy does lead to identifiable neurodevelopment late sequelae. Although these abnormalities are mild in some patients (overall IQ fall of approximately 10 points), those who have received higher doses at a young age may have significant learning difficulties.[17,18] Deficits in neuropsychological functions, such as visual-motor integration, processing speed, attention, and short-term memory are reported in children treated with 1800 cGy to 2400 cGy.[19,20] Girls and younger children are more vulnerable to cranial irradiation.[21,22,23] The decline in intellectual functioning appears to be progressive, showing more impairment of cognitive function with increasing time since radiation therapy. When the neurocognitive outcome of radiation therapy and chemotherapy-only CNS regimens are directly compared, the evidence suggests a better outcome for those treated with chemotherapy alone although some studies show no significant difference.[25,26,27]
ALL and chemotherapy–only CNS therapy
Most studies of chemotherapy-only CNS-directed treatment display good neurocognitive long-term outcomes. However, one review suggests modest effects on processes of attention, speed of information processing, memory, verbal comprehension, visual-spatial skills, and visual-motor functioning; global intellectual function was found to be preserved.[19,25,28,29,30] Few longitudinal studies evaluating long-term neurocognitive outcome report adequate data for a decline in global IQ after treatment with chemotherapy alone.[29,31] The academic achievement of ALL survivors in the long term seems to be generally average for reading and spelling with deficits mainly affecting arithmetic performance.[25,32,33] Further risk factors for poor neurocognitive outcome after chemotherapy-only CNS-directed treatment are younger age and female gender.[31,34] Time since diagnosis or treatment does not appear to have a similar influence on neurocognitive functioning as observed following cranial irradiation.
Because of its penetrance into the CNS, systemic methotrexate has been used in a variety of low-dose and high-dose regimens for leukemia CNS prophylaxis. Systemic methotrexate in high doses and combined with radiation therapy can lead to an infrequent but well-described leukoencephalopathy, in which severe neurocognitive deficits are obvious.
The type of steroid used for ALL systemic treatment does not affect cognitive functioning. This is based on long-term neurocognitive testing in 92 children with a history of standard-risk ALL who had received either dexamethasone or prednisone during treatment that observed no meaningful differences in cognitive functioning based on corticosteroid randomization.
Treatment intensity and duration can also adversely affect cognitive performance, because of absences from school and interruption of studies. In the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), treatment-related neurocognitive impairment resulted in decreased educational attainment and greater utilization of special education services. Those ALL survivors who were provided with special educational services had comparable educational attainment to siblings, whereas those not reporting use of special education had lower educational attainment.
Infants with ALL
Infants with ALL are considered to be at high risk for CNS disease. In the past, infants diagnosed before age 2 years were treated with cranial irradiation. As a result, significant deficits in overall intellectual function were noted as compared with cancer controls. Currently, most ALL treatment protocols do not specify cranial irradiation for infants or very young children. When cranial radiation is avoided, neurodevelopmental outcome improves. One long-term study of infants who received high-dose systemic methotrexate combined with intrathecal cytarabine and methotrexate for CNS leukemia prophylaxis and were tested 3 to 9 years posttreatment showed cognitive function was in the average range.
Neurocognitive abnormalities have been reported in other groups of cancer survivors besides patients with CNS tumors and ALL. In a study of adult survivors of childhood non-CNS cancers (including ALL, n = 5,937), 13% to 21% of survivors had impairment in task efficiency, organization, memory, or emotional regulation. This rate of impairment was approximately 50% higher than that in the sibling comparison. Factors such as diagnosis before age 6 years, female gender, cranial radiation therapy, and hearing impediment were associated with impairment.
Stem cell transplantation
Cognitive and academic consequences of stem cell transplantation in children have also been evaluated. In a report from the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in which 268 patients were treated with stem cell transplant, minimal risk of late cognitive and academic sequelae was seen. Subgroups of patients were at relatively higher risk, including those undergoing unrelated donor transplantation, receiving total-body irradiation, and developing graft-versus-host disease. However, these differences were small relative to differences in premorbid functioning, particularly those associated with socioeconomic status.
Neurocognitive function of pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was evaluated prior to HSCT and then at 1, 3, and 5 years post-HSCT. In this series of 38 patients who had all received IT chemotherapy as part of their treatment, significant declines in visual motor skills and memory test scores were noted within the first year posttransplant. By 3 years posttransplant, there was an improvement in the visual motor development scores and memory scores, but there were new deficits seen in long-term memory scores. By 5 years posttransplant, there were progressive declines in verbal skills, performance skills, and new deficits seen in long-term verbal memory scores. The greatest decline in neurocognitive function occurred in patients who received cranial irradiation either as part of their initial therapy or as part of their HSCT conditioning.
Most neurocognitive late effects are thought to be related to white matter damage in the brain. This was investigated in children with leukemia who were treated with HSCT. In a series of 36 patients, performance on neurocognitive measures associated with white matter was compared with performance on measures associated with gray matter. Composite white matter scores were significantly lower than composite gray matter scores.
Neurologic complications may be predisposed by tumor location, neurosurgery, radiation therapy, or specific neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. In children with CNS tumors, mass effect, tumor infiltration, and increased intracranial pressure may result in motor or sensory deficits, cerebellar dysfunction, and such secondary effects as seizures and cerebrovascular complications.
Clinical or radiographic leukoencephalopathy has been reported after cranial irradiation and high-dose systemic methotrexate administration. Younger patients and those given radiation doses greater than 24 Gy are more vulnerable to this complication. White matter changes may be accompanied by such neuroimaging abnormalities as dystrophic calcifications, cerebral lacunae, and cerebral atrophy.
Vinca alkaloid agents (vincristine and vinblastine) and cisplatin may cause peripheral neuropathy. This condition presents during treatment and appears to clinically resolve after completion of therapy. However, higher cumulative doses of vincristine and/or intrathecal methotrexate have been linked to neuromuscular impairments in long-term survivors of childhood ALL, which suggests that persistent effects of these agents may impact functional status in aging survivors.
In a report from the CCSS that compared 4,151 adult survivors of childhood ALL with their siblings, survivors were at an elevated risk for late-onset coordination problems, motor problems, seizures, and headaches. The overall cumulative incidence was 44% at 20 years. Serious headaches were most common, with a cumulative incidence of 25.8% at 20 years followed by focal neurologic dysfunction (21.2%) and seizures (7%). Children who were treated with regimens that included cranial radiation for ALL and those who suffer relapse were at increased risk for late-onset neurologic sequelae.
|Predisposing Therapy||Neurologic Effects||Health Screening|
|IQ = intelligence quotient; IT = intrathecal; IV = intravenous.|
|Platinum agents (carboplatin, cisplatin)||Peripheral sensory neuropathy||Neurologic exam|
|Plant alkaloid agents (vinblastine, vincristine)||Peripheral sensory or motor neuropathy (areflexia, weakness, foot drop, paresthesias)||Neurologic exam|
|Methotrexate (high dose IV or IT); cytarabine (high dose IV or IT); radiation impacting the brain||Clinical leukoencephalopathy (spasticity, ataxia, dysarthria, dysphagia, hemiparesis, seizures); headaches; seizures; sensory deficits||History: cognitive, motor, and/or sensory deficits, seizures|
|Radiation impacting cerebrovascular structures||Cerebrovascular complications (stroke, moyamoya, occlusive cerebral vasculopathy)||History: transient/permanent neurological events|
|Neurosurgery–brain||Motor and/or sensory deficits (paralysis, movement disorders, ataxia, eye problems [ocular nerve palsy, gaze paresis, nystagmus, papilledema, optic atrophy]); seizures||Neurologic exam|
|Neurosurgery–brain||Hydrocephalus; shunt malfunction||Abdominal x-ray|
|Neurosurgery–spine||Neurogenic bladder; urinary incontinence||History: hematuria, urinary urgency/frequency, urinary incontinence/retention, dysuria, nocturia, abnormal urinary stream|
|Neurosurgery–spine||Neurogenic bowel; fecal incontinence||History: chronic constipation, fecal soiling|
|Predisposing Therapy||Neuropsychological Effects||Health Screening|
|Methotrexate (high-dose IV or IT); cytarabine (high-dose IV or IT); radiation impacting the brain; neurosurgery–brain||Neurocognitive deficits (executive function, memory, attention, processing speed, etc.); learning deficits; diminished IQ; behavioral change||Assessment of educational and vocational progress|
|Formal neuropsychological evaluation|
Many childhood cancer survivors have adverse quality of life or other adverse psychological outcomes. Incorporation of psychological screening into clinical visits for childhood cancer survivors may be valuable; however, limiting such evaluations to those returning to long-term follow-up clinics may result in a biased subsample of those with more difficulties, and precise prevalence rates may be difficult to establish. A review of behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment among survivors of childhood brain tumors illustrates this point, in whom rates of psychological maladjustment range from 25% to 93%. In a series of CNS malignancy survivors (n = 802) reported from the CCSS, adverse outcome indicators of successful adult adaptation (educational attainment, income, employment, and marital status) were most likely in survivors who report neurocognitive dysfunction. Collectively, studies evaluating psychosocial outcomes among CNS tumor survivors indicate deficits in social competence in the level of social adjustment that worsen over time.
The CCSS has shown that adolescents who are long-term survivors of childhood cancer demonstrate significantly higher rates of inattention, social withdrawal, emotional problems, and externalizing problems compared with their siblings. Social withdrawal was associated with adult obesity and physical inactivity. As a result, these psychological problems may increase future risk for chronic health conditions and subsequent neoplasms and support the need to routinely screen and treat psychological problems following cancer therapy. In a study of 101 adult cancer survivors of childhood cancer, psychological screening was performed during a routine annual evaluation at the survivorship clinic at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute. On the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, 32 subjects had a positive screen (indicating psychological distress), and 14 subjects reported at least one suicidal symptom. Risk factors for psychological distress included subjects' dissatisfaction with physical appearance, poor physical health, and treatment with cranial radiation. In this study, the instrument was shown to be feasible in the setting of a clinic visit because the psychological screening was completed in less than 30 minutes. In addition, completion of the instrument itself did not appear to result in distress on the part on the survivors in 80% of cases. These data support the feasibility and importance of consistent assessment of psychosocial distress in a medical clinic setting. However, further study is needed to evaluate the true prevalence of suicidality among a representative cohort of long-term childhood cancer survivors. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Adjustment to Cancer: Anxiety and Distress for more information about psychological distress and cancer patients.)
Post-traumatic stress after childhood cancer
Despite the many stresses associated with the diagnosis of cancer and its treatment, studies have generally shown low levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children with cancer, typically no higher than healthy comparison children. Patient and parent adaptive style are significant determinants of PTSD in the pediatric oncology setting.[49,50]
The incidence of PTSD and PTSS has been reported in 15% to 20% of young adult survivors of childhood cancer. Survivors with PTSD reported more psychological problems and negative beliefs about their illness and health status than those without PTSD.[51,52] A subset of adult survivors (9%) from the CCSS reported functional impairment and/or clinical distress in addition to the set of symptoms consistent with a full diagnosis of PTSD significantly more frequently than sibling control subjects. In this study, PTSD was significantly associated with being unmarried, having an annual income of less than $20,000, being unemployed, having a high school education or less, and being older than 30 years. Survivors who underwent cranial radiation therapy at younger than 4 years were at particularly high risk for PTSD. Intensive treatment was also associated with increased risk of full PTSD.
Because avoidance of places and persons associated with the cancer is part of PTSD, the syndrome may interfere with obtaining appropriate health care. Those with PTSD perceived greater current threats to their lives or the lives of their children. Other risk factors include poor family functioning, decreased social support, and noncancer stressors. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder for more information about PTSD in cancer patients.)
Psychosocial outcomes among adolescent cancer survivors
Most research on late effects after cancer has focused on individuals with a cancer manifestation during childhood. Little is known about the specific impact of a cancer diagnosis with an onset in adolescence. In 820 survivors of cancer during adolescence (diagnosed between ages 15–18 years), when compared with an age-matched sample from the general population and a control group of adults without cancer, female survivors of adolescent cancers had achieved fewer developmental milestones in their psychosexual development, such as having their first boyfriend, or reached these milestones later. Male survivors were more likely to live with their parents when compared with same-sex controls. Adolescent cancer survivors were less likely to have ever married or had children. Compared with their age-matched samples, survivors were significantly older at their first marriage and at the birth of their first child. Survivors in this cohort were also significantly less satisfied with their general and health-related life compared with a community-based control group. Impaired general and health-related life satisfaction were associated with somatic late effects, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and lower rates of post-traumatic growth.
The CCSS evaluated outcomes of 2,979 adolescent survivors and 649 siblings of cancer survivors to determine the incidence of difficulty in six behavioral and social domains (depression/anxiety, being headstrong, attention deficit, peer conflict/social withdrawal, antisocial behaviors, and social competence). Survivors were 1.5 times (99% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–2.1) more likely than siblings to have symptoms of depression/anxiety and 1.7 times (99% CI, 1.3–2.2) more likely to have antisocial behaviors. Compared with siblings, scores in the depression/anxiety, attention deficit, and antisocial domains were significantly elevated in adolescents treated for leukemia or CNS tumors. In addition, survivors of neuroblastoma had difficulty in the depression/anxiety and antisocial domains. CNS-directed treatments (cranial radiation and/or intrathecal methotrexate) were specific risk factors for adverse behavioral outcomes.
Because of the challenges associated with the diagnosis of an adolescent/young adult cancer, it is important for this group to have access to programs to address the unique psychosocial, educational, and vocational issues that impact their transition to survivorship.[58,59]
Refer to the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers for CNS and psychosocial late effects information including risk factors, evaluation, and health counseling.
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|35.||Cohen ME, Duffner PK: Long-term consequences of CNS treatment for childhood cancer, Part I: Pathologic consequences and potential for oncogenesis. Pediatr Neurol 7 (3): 157-63, 1991 May-Jun.|
|36.||Kadan-Lottick NS, Brouwers P, Breiger D, et al.: A comparison of neurocognitive functioning in children previously randomized to dexamethasone or prednisone in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 114 (9): 1746-52, 2009.|
|37.||Mitby PA, Robison LL, Whitton JA, et al.: Utilization of special education services and educational attainment among long-term survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer 97 (4): 1115-26, 2003.|
|38.||Mulhern RK, Kovnar E, Langston J, et al.: Long-term survivors of leukemia treated in infancy: factors associated with neuropsychologic status. J Clin Oncol 10 (7): 1095-102, 1992.|
|39.||Kaleita TA, Reaman GH, MacLean WE, et al.: Neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Children's Cancer Group report. Cancer 85 (8): 1859-65, 1999.|
|40.||Phipps S, Rai SN, Leung WH, et al.: Cognitive and academic consequences of stem-cell transplantation in children. J Clin Oncol 26 (12): 2027-33, 2008.|
|41.||Shah AJ, Epport K, Azen C, et al.: Progressive declines in neurocognitive function among survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pediatric hematologic malignancies. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 30 (6): 411-8, 2008.|
|42.||Anderson FS, Kunin-Batson AS, Perkins JL, et al.: White versus gray matter function as seen on neuropsychological testing following bone marrow transplant for acute leukemia in childhood. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 4 (1): 283-8, 2008.|
|43.||Ness KK, Hudson MM, Pui CH, et al.: Neuromuscular impairments in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: associations with physical performance and chemotherapy doses. Cancer 118 (3): 828-38, 2012.|
|44.||Goldsby RE, Liu Q, Nathan PC, et al.: Late-occurring neurologic sequelae in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Oncol 28 (2): 324-31, 2010.|
|45.||Fuemmeler BF, Elkin TD, Mullins LL: Survivors of childhood brain tumors: behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment. Clin Psychol Rev 22 (4): 547-85, 2002.|
|46.||Schulte F, Barrera M: Social competence in childhood brain tumor survivors: a comprehensive review. Support Care Cancer 18 (12): 1499-513, 2010.|
|47.||Krull KR, Huang S, Gurney JG, et al.: Adolescent behavior and adult health status in childhood cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv 4 (3): 210-7, 2010.|
|48.||Recklitis C, O'Leary T, Diller L: Utility of routine psychological screening in the childhood cancer survivor clinic. J Clin Oncol 21 (5): 787-92, 2003.|
|49.||Phipps S, Larson S, Long A, et al.: Adaptive style and symptoms of posttraumatic stress in children with cancer and their parents. J Pediatr Psychol 31 (3): 298-309, 2006.|
|50.||Phipps S, Jurbergs N, Long A: Symptoms of post-traumatic stress in children with cancer: does personality trump health status? Psychooncology 18 (9): 992-1002, 2009.|
|51.||Rourke MT, Hobbie WL, Schwartz L, et al.: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer 49 (2): 177-82, 2007.|
|52.||Schwartz L, Drotar D: Posttraumatic stress and related impairment in survivors of childhood cancer in early adulthood compared to healthy peers. J Pediatr Psychol 31 (4): 356-66, 2006.|
|53.||Stuber ML, Meeske KA, Krull KR, et al.: Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Pediatrics 125 (5): e1124-34, 2010.|
|54.||Hobbie WL, Stuber M, Meeske K, et al.: Symptoms of posttraumatic stress in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. J Clin Oncol 18 (24): 4060-6, 2000.|
|55.||Dieluweit U, Debatin KM, Grabow D, et al.: Social outcomes of long-term survivors of adolescent cancer. Psychooncology 19 (12): 1277-84, 2010.|
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Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy can cause multiple cosmetic and functional abnormalities of dentition, most predominantly in children treated before age 5 years who have not yet developed deciduous dentition.[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9] However, even older prepubertal children are at risk. Developing teeth are irradiated in the course of treating head and neck sarcomas, Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, central nervous system leukemia, nasopharyngeal cancer, and as a component of total-body irradiation (TBI). Doses of 20 Gy to 40 Gy can cause root shortening or abnormal curvature, dwarfism, and hypocalcification. More than 85% of survivors of head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma who receive radiation doses greater than 40 Gy may have significant dental abnormalities, including mandibular or maxillary hypoplasia, increased caries, hypodontia, microdontia, root stunting, and xerostomia.[6,7]
Chemotherapy for the treatment of leukemia can cause shortening and thinning of the premolar roots and enamel abnormalities.[1,11,12] Childhood Cancer Survivor Study investigators identified age younger than 5 years and increased exposure to cyclophosphamide as significant risk factors for developmental dental abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer. TBI has been linked to the development of short, V-shaped roots, microdontia, enamel hypoplasia, and premature apical closure.[2,3,13] Children who undergo bone marrow transplantation with TBI for neuroblastoma are at substantial risk for a spectrum of abnormalities and require close surveillance and appropriate interventions.
Salivary gland irradiation incidental to treatment of head and neck malignancies or Hodgkin lymphoma causes a qualitative and quantitative change in salivary flow, which can be reversible after doses of less than 40 Gy but may be irreversible after higher doses, depending on whether sensitizing chemotherapy is also administered. Dental caries are the most problematic consequence. The use of topical fluoride can dramatically reduce the frequency of caries, and saliva substitutes and sialagogues can ameliorate sequelae such as xerostomia.
It has been reported that the incidence of dental visits for childhood cancer survivors falls below the American Dental Association's recommendation that all adults visit the dentist annually. These findings give health care providers further impetus to encourage routine dental and dental hygiene evaluations for survivors of childhood treatment. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation for more information about oral complications and cancer patients.)
|Predisposing Therapy||Oral/Dental Effects||Health Screening/Interventions|
|CT = computed tomography; GVHD = graft-versus-host disease; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging.|
|Any chemotherapy; radiation impacting oral cavity||Dental developmental abnormalities; tooth/root agenesis; microdontia; root thinning/shortening; enamel dysplasia||Dental evaluation and cleaning every 6 months|
|Regular dental care including fluoride applications|
|Consultation with orthodontist experienced in management of irradiated childhood cancer survivors|
|Baseline panorex prior to dental procedures to evaluate root development|
|Radiation impacting oral cavity||Malocclusion; temporomandibular joint dysfunction||Dental evaluation and cleaning every 6 months|
|Regular dental care including fluoride applications|
|Consultation with orthodontist experienced in management of irradiated childhood cancer survivors|
|Baseline panorex prior to dental procedures to evaluate root development|
|Radiation impacting oral cavity; hematopoietic cell transplantation with history of chronic GVHD||Xerostomia/salivary gland dysfunction; periodontal disease; dental caries; oral cancer (squamous cell carcinoma)||Dental evaluation and cleaning every 6 months|
|Supportive care with saliva substitutes, moistening agents, and sialogogues (pilocarpine)|
|Regular dental care including fluoride applications|
|Radiation impacting oral cavity (≥40 Gy)||Osteoradionecrosis||History: impaired or delayed healing following dental work|
|Exam: persistent jaw pain, swelling or trismus|
|Imaging studies (x-ray, CT scan and/or MRI) may assist in making diagnosis|
|Surgical biopsy may be needed to confirm diagnosis|
|Consider hyperbaric oxygen treatments|
Radiation and specific chemotherapeutic agents may produce gastrointestinal (GI) or hepatic toxicity that is acute and transient in the majority of patients, but rarely may be delayed and persistent. Late radiation injury to the digestive tract is attributable to vascular injury. Necrosis, ulceration, stenosis, or perforation can occur and are characterized by malabsorption, pain, and recurrent episodes of bowel obstruction, as well as perforation and infection.[18,19,20] In general, fractionated doses of 20 Gy to 30 Gy can be delivered to the small bowel without significant long-term morbidity. Doses greater than 40 Gy cause bowel obstruction or chronic enterocolitis. Sensitizing chemotherapeutic agents such as dactinomycin or anthracyclines can increase this risk.
A limited number of reports describe GI complications in pediatric patients with genitourinary solid tumors treated with radiation.[22,23,24,25,26] One study comprehensively evaluated intestinal symptoms in 44 children with cancer who underwent whole-abdominal (10 Gy to 40 Gy) and involved-field (25 Gy to 40 Gy) radiation and received additional interventions predisposing them to GI tract complications including abdominal laparotomy in 43 (98%) and chemotherapy in 25 (57%) patients. Late small bowel obstruction was observed in 36% of patients surviving 19 months to 7 years, which was uniformly preceded by small bowel toxicity during therapy. Reports from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study evaluating GI toxicity in long-term survivors of genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma infrequently observed abnormalities of the irradiated bowel.[23,24,26] Radiation-related complications occurred in approximately 10% of long-term survivors of paratesticular and bladder/prostate rhabdomyosarcoma and included intraperitoneal adhesions with bowel obstruction, chronic diarrhea, and stricture or enteric fistula formation.[23,26] Children irradiated at lower doses for Wilms tumor also uncommonly develop chronic GI toxicity. Several studies have reported cases of small bowel obstruction following abdominal surgery, but the role of radiation appears to be less important as operative findings of enteritis have not consistently been observed.[25,27] Among 5-year childhood cancer survivors participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), the cumulative incidence of self-reported GI conditions was 37.6% at 20 years (25.8% for upper GI complications and 15.5% for lower GI complications) from cancer diagnosis representing an almost twofold excess risk of upper GI (relative risk [RR] = 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–2.0) and lower GI (RR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.7–2.2) complications compared with sibling controls. Factors predicting higher risk of specific GI complications include older age at diagnosis, intensified therapy (anthracyclines for upper GI complications and alkylating agents for lower GI complications), abdominal radiation, and abdominal surgery.
|Predisposing Therapy||Gastrointestinal Effects||Health Screening/Interventions|
|GVHD = graft-versus-host disease; KUB = kidneys, ureter, bladder (plain abdominal radiograph).|
|Radiation impacting esophagus; hematopoietic cell transplantation with any history of chronic GVHD||Esophageal stricture||History: dysphagia, heart burn|
|Esophageal dilation, antireflux surgery|
|Radiation impacting bowel||Chronic enterocolitis; fistula; strictures||History: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea|
|Serum protein and albumin levels yearly in patients with chronic diarrhea or fistula|
|Surgical and/or gastroenterology consultation for symptomatic patients|
|Radiation impacting bowel; laparotomy||Bowel obstruction||History: abdominal pain, distention, vomiting, constipation|
|Exam: tenderness, abdominal guarding, distension (acute episode)|
|Obtain KUB in patients with clinical symptoms of obstruction|
|Surgical consultation in patients unresponsive to medical management|
|Pelvic surgery; cystectomy||Fecal incontinence||History: chronic constipation, fecal soiling|
Hepatic complications resulting from childhood cancer therapy are uncommon and observed primarily as acute treatment toxicities. Recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are the exception to this rule as these individuals frequently experience chronic liver dysfunction related to microvascular, immunologic, infectious, metabolic, and toxic etiologies. Chemotherapeutic agents with established hepatotoxic potential include antimetabolite agents like 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, methotrexate, and rarely, dactinomycin. Veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) and cholestatic disease have been observed after thiopurine administration, especially 6-thioguanine. Progressive fibrosis and portal hypertension has been reported in a subset of children who developed VOD/SOS following treatment with 6-thioguanine.[30,31] Acute, dose-related, reversible VOD/SOS has been observed in children treated with dactinomycin for pediatric solid tumors.[32,33] In the transplant setting, VOD/SOS has also been observed following conditioning regimens that have included cyclophosphamide/TBI, busulfan/cyclophosphamide and carmustine/cyclophosphamide/etoposide. Because high-dose cyclophosphamide is common to all of these regimens, toxic cyclophosphamide metabolites resulting from the agent's variable metabolism have been speculated as a causative factor.
Acute radiation-induced liver disease also causes endothelial cell injury that is characteristic of VOD/SOS. In adults, the whole liver has tolerance up to 30 Gy to 35 Gy with conventional fractionation, the prevalence of radiation-induced liver disease varies from 6% to 66% based on the volume of liver involved and on hepatic reserve.[35,36] Based on limited data from pediatric cohorts treated in the 1970s and 1980s, persistent radiation hepatopathy after contemporary treatment appears to be uncommon in long-term survivors without predisposing conditions such as viral hepatitis or iron overload. The risk of injury in children increases with radiation dose, hepatic volume, younger age at treatment, prior partial hepatectomy, and concomitant use of radiomimetic chemotherapy like dactinomycin and doxorubicin.[38,39,40,41] Survivors who received radiation doses of 40 Gy to at least one-third of liver volume, doses of 30 Gy or more to whole abdomen, or an upper abdominal field involving the entire liver are at highest risk for hepatic dysfunction.
Viral hepatitis B and C may complicate the treatment course of childhood cancer and result in chronic hepatic dysfunction. Hepatitis B tends to have a more aggressive acute clinical course and a lower rate of chronic infection. Hepatitis C is characterized by a mild acute infection and a high rate of chronic infection. The incidence of transfusion-related hepatitis C in childhood cancer survivors has ranged from 5% to 50% depending on the geographic location of the reporting center.[43,44,45,46,47,48,49] Chronic hepatitis predisposes cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Concurrent infection with both viruses accelerates the progression of liver disease. Since the majority of patients received some type of blood product during childhood cancer treatment and many are unaware of their transfusion history, screening based on date of diagnosis/treatment is recommended unless there is absolute certainty that the patient did not receive any blood or blood products. Therefore, all children who received blood transfusions before 1972 should be screened for hepatitis B and before 1993 should be screened for hepatitis C virus and referred for discussion of treatment options.
Less commonly reported hepatobiliary complications include cholelithiasis, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH), and microvesicular fatty change. In limited studies, an increased risk of cholelithiasis has been linked to ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, abdominal radiation, and HSCT.[51,52] Gallbladder disease was the most frequent late-onset liver condition reported among participants in the CCSS and they had a twofold excess risk compared with sibling controls (RR = 2.0; 95% CI, 2.0–40.0). Lesions made up of regenerating liver called FNH have been incidentally noted after chemotherapy or HSCT.[53,54] These lesions are thought to be iatrogenic manifestations of vascular damage and have been associated with VOD, high-dose alkylating agents (e.g., busulfan and melphalan), and liver radiation therapy. The prevalence of this finding is unknown, noted at less than 1% in some papers; however, this is likely an underestimate. In one study of patients who were followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after transplant to assess liver iron stores, the cumulative incidence was 35% at 150 months posttransplant. The lesions can mimic metastatic or subsequent tumors, but MRI imaging is generally diagnostic, and unless the lesions grow or patients have worrisome symptoms, biopsy or resection is generally not necessary.
Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) is a rare condition characterized by the development of multiple monoacinar regenerative hepatic nodules and mild fibrosis. The pathogenesis is not well established, but may represent a nonspecific tissue adaptation to heterogeneous hepatic blood flow. NRH has rarely been observed in survivors of childhood cancer treated with chemotherapy, with or without liver radiation therapy.[56,57] Biopsy may be necessary to distinguish NRH from a subsequent malignancy.
In a cohort who recently completed intensified therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, histologic evidence of fatty infiltration was noted in 93% and siderosis in up to 70% of patients. Fibrosis developed in 11% and was associated with higher serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Fatty liver with insulin resistance has also been reported to develop more frequently in long-term childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial radiation before allogeneic stem cell transplantation who were not overweight or obese. Prospective studies are needed to define whether acute posttherapy fatty liver change contributes to the development of steatohepatitis or the metabolic syndrome in this population. Likewise, information about the long-term outcomes of transfusion-related iron overload are lacking, especially among survivor cohorts who did not undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Survivors with liver dysfunction should be counseled regarding risk-reduction methods to prevent hepatic injury. Standard recommendations include maintenance of a healthy body weight, abstinence from alcohol use, and immunization against hepatitis A and B viruses. In patients with chronic hepatitis, precautions to reduce viral transmission to household and sexual contacts should also be reviewed.
|Predisposing Therapy||Hepatic Effects||Health Screening/Interventions|
|ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; HSCT = hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.|
|Methotrexate; mercaptopurine/thioguanine; HSCT||Hepatic dysfunction||Lab: ALT, AST, bilirubin levels|
|Ferritin in those treated with HSCT|
|Mercaptopurine/thioguanine; HSCT||Veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstructive syndrome||Exam: scleral icterus, jaundice, ascites, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly|
|Lab: ALT, AST, bilirubin, platelet levels|
|Ferritin in those treated with HSCT|
|Radiation impacting liver/biliary tract; HSCT||Hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis||Exam: jaundice, spider angiomas, palmar erythema, xanthomata hepatomegaly, splenomegaly|
|Lab: ALT, AST, bilirubin levels|
|Ferritin in those treated with HSCT|
|Prothrombin time for evaluation of hepatic synthetic function in patients with abnormal liver screening tests|
|Screen for viral hepatitis in patients with persistently abnormal liver function or any patient transfused prior to 1993|
|Gastroenterology/hepatology consultation in patients with persistent liver dysfunction|
|Hepatitis A and B immunizations in patients lacking immunity|
|Consider phlebotomy and chelation therapy for iron overload|
|Radiation impacting liver/biliary tract||Cholelithiasis||History: colicky abdominal pain related to fatty food intake, excessive flatulence|
|Exam: right upper quadrant or epigastric tenderness (acute episode)|
|Consider gallbladder ultrasound in patients with chronic abdominal pain|
Refer to the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers for digestive system late effects information including risk factors, evaluation, and health counseling.
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|58.||Halonen P, Mattila J, Ruuska T, et al.: Liver histology after current intensified therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: microvesicular fatty change and siderosis are the main findings. Med Pediatr Oncol 40 (3): 148-54, 2003.|
|59.||Tomita Y, Ishiguro H, Yasuda Y, et al.: High incidence of fatty liver and insulin resistance in long-term adult survivors of childhood SCT. Bone Marrow Transplant 46 (3): 416-25, 2011.|
Thyroid dysfunction, manifested by primary hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, goiter, or nodules, is a common delayed effect of radiation therapy fields that include the thyroid gland incidental to treating Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), brain tumors, head and neck sarcomas, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Of children treated with radiation therapy, most develop hypothyroidism within the first 2 to 5 years posttreatment, but new cases can occur later. Reports of thyroid dysfunction differ depending on the dose of radiation, the length of follow-up, and the biochemical criteria utilized to make the diagnosis. The most frequently reported abnormalities include elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), depressed thyroxine (T4), or both.[2,3,4,5] Compensated hypothyroidism includes an elevated TSH with a normal T4 and is asymptomatic. The natural history is unclear, but most endocrinologists support treatment. Uncompensated hypothyroidism includes both an elevated TSH and a depressed T4. Thyroid hormone replacement is beneficial for correction of the metabolic abnormality, and has clinical benefits for cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and neurocognitive function.
The incidence of hypothyroidism should decrease with lower cumulative doses of radiation therapy employed in newer protocols. In a study of 1,677 children and adults with HL who were treated with radiation therapy between 1961 and 1989, the actuarial risk at 26 years posttreatment for overt or subclinical hypothyroidism was 47%, with a peak incidence at 2 to 3 years posttreatment. In a study of HL patients treated between 1962 and 1979, hypothyroidism occurred in 4 of 24 patients who received mantle doses less than 26 Gy but in 74 of 95 patients who received greater than 26 Gy. The peak incidence occurred at 3 to 5 years posttreatment, with a median of 4.6 years. A cohort of childhood HL survivors treated between 1970 and 1986 were evaluated for thyroid disease by use of a self-report questionnaire in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Among 1,791 survivors, 34% reported that they had been diagnosed with at least one thyroid abnormality. For hypothyroidism, there was a clear dose response, with a 20-year risk of 20% for those who received less than 35 Gy, 30% for those who received 35 Gy to 44.9 Gy, and 50% for those who received greater than 45 Gy to the thyroid gland. The relative risk for hypothyroidism was 17.1; for hyperthyroidism 8.0; and for thyroid nodules, 27.0. Elapsed time since diagnosis was a risk factor for both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, where the risk increased in the first 3 to 5 years after diagnosis. For nodules, the risk increased beginning at 10 years after diagnosis. Females were at increased risk for hypothyroidism and thyroid nodules.
Figure 3. Probability of developing hypothyroidism according to radiation dose in 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Sklar C, Whitton J, Mertens A, Stovall M, Green D, Marina N, Greffe B, Wolden S, Robison L: Abnormalities of the Thyroid in Survivors of Hodgkin's Disease: Data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85 (9): 3227-3232, September 1, 2000. Copyright 2000, The Endocrine Society.
(Refer to the Subsequent Neoplasms section of this summary for information about subsequent thyroid cancers.)
As might be expected, children treated for head and neck malignancies are also at risk for primary hypothyroidism if the neck is irradiated. The German Group of Paediatric Radiation Oncology reported on 1,086 patients treated at 62 centers, including 404 patients (median age, 10.9 years) who had received radiation therapy to the thyroid gland and/or hypophysis. Follow-up information was available for 264 patients (60.9%; median follow-up, 40 months), with 60 patients (22.7%) showing pathologic values. In comparison to patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation (median dose, 12 Gy), patients with radiation doses of 15 Gy to 25 Gy to the thyroid gland had a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.072 (P = .002) for the development of pathologic thyroid blood values. Patients with greater than 25 Gy to the thyroid gland and patients who underwent craniospinal irradiation had HR of 3.768 (P = .009) and 5.674 (P < .001), respectively. The cumulative incidence of thyroid hormone substitution therapy did not differ between defined subgroups.
Survivors of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant are at increased risk of thyroid dysfunction, with the risk being much lower (15%–16%) after fractionated total-body irradiation (TBI), as opposed to single-dose TBI (46%–48%). Non-TBI-containing regimens historically were not associated with an increased risk. However, in a report from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the increased risk of thyroid dysfunction was not different between children receiving a TBI or busulfan-based regimen (P = .48). Other high-dose therapies have not been studied. While mildly elevated TSH is common, it is usually accompanied by normal thyroxine concentration.[11,12]
|Predisposing Therapy||Endocrine/Metabolic Effects||Health Screening|
|TSH = thyroid stimulating hormone.|
|Radiation impacting thyroid gland; thyroidectomy||Primary hypothyroidism||TSH level|
|Radiation impacting thyroid gland||Hyperthyroidism||Free thyroxine (Free T4) level|
|Radiation impacting thyroid gland||Thyroid nodules||Thyroid exam|
Central hypothyroidism is discussed with late effects that affect the pituitary gland.
Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for a spectrum of neuroendocrine abnormalities, primarily due to the effect of radiation therapy on the hypothalamus. Essentially all of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes are at risk.[13,14,15] The six anterior pituitary hormones and their major hypothalamic regulatory factors are outlined in Table 8.
|Pituitary Hormone||Hypothalamic Factor||Hypothalamic Regulation of the Pituitary Hormone|
|(–) = inhibitory; (+) = stimulatory.|
|Growth hormone||Growth hormone-releasing hormone||+|
|Luteinizing hormone||Gonadotropin-releasing hormone||+|
|Follicle-stimulating hormone||Gonadotropin-releasing hormone||+|
|Thyroid-stimulating hormone||Thyroid-releasing hormone||+|
Growth hormone deficiency
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is the first and most common side effect of cranial irradiation in brain tumor survivors. The risk increases with radiation dose and time after treatment. GHD is the earliest hormone deficiency and is sensitive to low doses. Other hormone deficiencies require higher doses and their time to onset is much longer than for GHD. The prevalence in pooled analysis was found to be approximately 35.6%. The potential for neuroendocrine damage is likely to decrease because of the use of more focused radiation therapy and a decrease in dose for some malignancies such as medulloblastoma.
Approximately 60% to 80% of irradiated pediatric brain tumor patients who have received doses greater than 30 Gy will have impaired serum growth hormone (GH) response to provocative stimulation, usually within 5 years of treatment. The dose-response relationship has a threshold of 18 Gy to 20 Gy; the higher the radiation dose, the earlier that GHD will occur after treatment. A study of conformal radiation therapy in children with central nervous system (CNS) tumors indicates that GH insufficiency can usually be demonstrated within 12 months of radiation therapy, depending on hypothalamic dose-volume effects.
Children treated with CNS irradiation for leukemia are also at increased risk of GHD. One study evaluated 127 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) treated with 24 Gy, 18 Gy, or no cranial irradiation. The change in height, compared with population norms expressed as the standard deviation score (SDS), was significant for all three groups with a dose-response of -0.49 ± 0.14 for the no radiation therapy group, -0.65 ± 0.15 for the 18 Gy radiation therapy group, and -1.38 ± 0.16 for the 24 Gy group. Another study found similar results in 118 ALL survivors treated with 24 Gy cranial irradiation, in which 74% had SDS score of -1 or greater and the remainder had -2 or greater. However, survivors of childhood ALL who are treated with chemotherapy alone are also at increased risk for adult short stature, though the risk is highest for those treated with cranial and craniospinal radiation therapy at a young age. In this cross-sectional study, attained adult height was determined among 2,434 ALL survivors participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). All survivor treatment exposure groups (chemotherapy alone and chemotherapy with cranial or craniospinal radiation therapy) had decreased adult height and an increased risk of adult short stature (height standard deviation score < -2) compared with siblings (P < .001). Compared with siblings, the risk of short stature for survivors treated with chemotherapy alone was elevated (odds ratio = 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9–6.0). Among survivors, significant risk factors for short stature included diagnosis of ALL before puberty, higher-dose cranial radiation therapy (≥20 Gy vs. <20 Gy), any radiation therapy to the spine, and female gender.
GHD has been reported in 14% of survivors of childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which is secondary to the hypothalamic/pituitary radiation. This incidence is likely an underestimate since screening was selective.
Children who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with total-body irradiation (TBI) have a significant risk of both GHD and the direct effects of radiation on skeletal development. Risk is increased with single-dose as opposed to fractionated TBI, pretransplant cranial irradiation, female gender, and posttreatment complications such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).[23,24,25] Regimens containing busulfan and cyclophosphamide appear to increase risk in some studies,[25,26] but not others. Hyperfractionation of the TBI dose markedly reduces risk in patients who have not undergone pretransplant cranial radiation for CNS leukemia prophylaxis or therapy.
The late effects that occur after HSCT have been studied and reviewed by the Late Effect Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Among 181 patients with aplastic anemia, leukemias, and lymphomas who underwent HSCT before puberty, an overall decrease in final height-SDS value was found compared with height at transplant and genetic height. The mean loss of height is estimated to be approximately 1 height-SDS (6 cm) compared with the mean height at time of HSCT and mean genetic height. The type of transplantation, GVHD, GH, or steroid treatment did not influence final height. TBI (single-dose radiation therapy more than fractionated-dose radiation therapy), male gender, and young age at transplant, were found to be major factors for long-term height loss. Most patients (140 of 181) reached adult height within the normal range of the general population.[29,30]
GHD should be treated with replacement therapy. Some controversy surrounds this, with a concern over increased risk of primary tumor recurrence and subsequent malignancies. Most studies, however, are limited by selection bias and small sample size. One study evaluated 361 GH-treated cancer survivors enrolled in the CCSS and compared risk of recurrence, risk of subsequent neoplasm, and risk of death among survivors who did and did not receive treatment with GH. The relative risk (RR) of disease recurrence was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.37–1.86) for GH-treated survivors. GH-treated subjects were diagnosed with 15 subsequent neoplasms, all solid tumors, for an overall RR of 3.21 (95% CI, 1.88–5.46), mainly because of a small excess number of subsequent neoplasms observed in survivors of acute leukemia. With prolonged follow-up, the elevation of subsequent cancer risk due to GH diminished. Compared with survivors not treated with GH, those who were treated had a twofold excess risk of developing a subsequent neoplasm (RR = 2.15; 95% CI, 1.33–3.47, P < .002), and meningiomas were the most commonly observed (9 of 20 tumors). A review of existing data suggests that treatment with GH is not associated with an increased risk of CNS tumor progression or recurrence, or new or recurrent leukemia. In general, the data addressing subsequent malignancies should be interpreted with caution given the small number of events.
Pubertal development can be adversely affected by cranial radiation. Doses greater than 30 Gy to 40 Gy may result in gonadotropin deficiency, while doses greater than 18 Gy can result in precocious puberty. Precocious puberty has been reported in some children receiving cranial irradiation, mostly in girls who receive cranial radiation in doses of 24 Gy or higher. Earlier puberty and earlier peak height velocity, however, have been observed in girls treated with 18 Gy cranial radiation.[35,36] Another study showed that the age of pubertal onset is positively correlated with age at the time of cranial irradiation. The impact of early puberty in a child with radiation-associated GHD is significant, and timing of GH therapy is especially important for GH-deficient females also at risk of precocious puberty. With higher doses of cranial irradiation (>35 Gy), deficiencies in the gonadotropins can be seen, with a cumulative incidence of 10% to 20% at 5 to 10 years posttreatment.[37,38,39]
Central hypothyroidism in survivors of childhood cancer can have profound clinical consequences and be underappreciated. Symptoms of central hypothyroidism (e.g., asthenia, edema, drowsiness, and skin dryness) may have a gradual onset and go unrecognized until thyroid replacement therapy is initiated. In addition to delayed puberty and slow growth, hypothyroidism may cause fatigue, dry skin, constipation, increased sleep requirement, and cold intolerance. Radiation dose to the hypothalamus in excess of 42 Gy is associated with an increase in the risk of developing thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency, 44% ± 19% (dose ≥42 Gy) and 11% ± 8% (dose <42 Gy). It occurs in as many as 65% of survivors of brain tumors, 43% of survivors of childhood nasopharyngeal tumors, 35% of bone marrow transplant recipients, and 10% to 15% of leukemia survivors.[22,41]
Mixed primary and central hypothyroidism can also occur and reflects separate injuries to the thyroid gland and the hypothalamus (e.g., radiation injury to both structures). TSH values may be elevated and, in addition, the secretory dynamics of TSH are abnormal with a blunted or absent TSH surge or a delayed peak response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH).[14,42] In a study of 208 childhood cancer survivors referred for evaluation of possible hypothyroidism or hypopituitarism, mixed hypothyroidism was present in 15 (7%) patients. Among patients who received TBI (fractionated total doses of 12 Gy–14.4 Gy) or craniospinal irradiation (fractionated total cranial doses higher than 30 Gy), 15% had mixed hypothyroidism. In one study of 32 children treated for medulloblastoma, 56% developed hypothyroidism, including 38% with primary hypothyroidism, and 19% with central hypothyroidism.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency is less common than other neuroendocrine deficits but should be suspected in patients who have a history of brain tumor (regardless of therapy modality), cranial irradiation, GH deficiency, or central hypothyroidism.[14,16,40,44,45,46,47] Although uncommon, ACTH deficiency can occur in patients who have received intracranial radiation that did not exceed 24 Gy and has been reported to occur in less than 3% of patients after chemotherapy alone. Patients with partial ACTH deficiency may have only subtle symptoms unless they become ill. Illness can disrupt these patients' usual homeostasis and cause a more severe, prolonged, or complicated course than expected. As in complete ACTH deficiency, incomplete or unrecognized ACTH deficiency can be life-threatening during concurrent illness.
Hyperprolactinemia has been described in patients who have received doses of radiation higher than 50 Gy to the hypothalamus or who have undergone surgery disrupting the integrity of the pituitary stalk. Hyperprolactinemia may result in delayed puberty. In adult women, hyperprolactinemia may cause galactorrhea, menstrual irregularities, loss of libido, hot flashes, infertility, and osteopenia; in adult men, impotence and loss of libido. Primary hypothyroidism may lead to hyperprolactinemia as a result of hyperplasia of thyrotrophs and lactotrophs, presumably due to TRH hypersecretion. The prolactin response to TRH is usually exaggerated in these patients.[14,16,44]
|Predisposing Therapy||Endocrine/Metabolic Effects||Health Screening|
|BMI = body mass index; FSH = follicle-stimulating hormone; LH = luteinizing hormone.|
|Radiation impacting hypothalamic-pituitary axis||Growth hormone deficiency||Assessment of nutritional status|
|Height, weight, BMI, Tanner stage|
|Radiation impacting hypothalamic-pituitary axis||Precocious puberty||Height, weight, BMI, Tanner stage|
|Radiation impacting hypothalamic-pituitary axis||Gonadotropin deficiency||History: puberty, sexual function|
|Exam: Tanner stage|
|FSH, LH, estradiol or testosterone levels|
|Radiation impacting hypothalamic-pituitary axis||Central adrenal insufficiency||History: failure to thrive, anorexia, episodic dehydration, hypoglycemia, lethargy, unexplained hypotension|
|Endocrine consultation for those with radiation dose ≥30 Gy|
|Radiation impacting hypothalamic-pituitary axis||Hyperprolactinemia||History/exam: galactorrhea|
|Radiation impacting hypothalamic-pituitary axis||Overweight/obesity; metabolic syndrome||Height, weight, BMI|
|Fasting blood glucose level and lipid profile|
|Radiation impacting hypothalamic-pituitary axis||Central hypothyroidism||Free thyroxine (Free T4) level|
Testis and Ovary
Testicular and ovarian hormonal function are discussed in the Late Effects of the Reproductive System section of this summary.
The metabolic syndrome is highly associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. Definitions of the metabolic syndrome are evolving, but generally include a combination of central (abdominal) obesity with at least two or more of the following features:
An increased risk of metabolic syndrome or its components has been observed among cancer survivors. Long-term survivors of ALL, especially those treated with cranial radiation, may have a higher prevalence of some, potentially modifiable, risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as impaired glucose tolerance or overt diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity.[49,50] In a young adult cohort of ALL survivors (mean age 30 years), 62% had at least one cardiovascular risk factor and 30% had two or more. Another study observed no difference in prevalence of metabolic syndrome in 75 ALL survivors compared with a population-based control group. However, survivors with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have GH insufficiency or deficiency. Those treated with cranial radiation therapy also had an association with GH abnormalities and were more likely to have two or more components of the metabolic syndrome compared with survivors who were not treated with cranial radiation therapy.
A high frequency of cardiovascular risk factors has also been observed among hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. French investigators reported an overall 9.2% (95% CI, 5.5–14.4) prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a cohort of 184 ALL survivors (median age 21.2 years). Gender, age at diagnosis, corticosteroid therapy, or cranial radiation were not significant predictors of metabolic syndrome. However, hematopoietic cell transplantation with TBI was a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR] = 3.9, P = .03). Other investigators have reported a significantly increased risk of hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus associated with exposure to TBI.[50,55] The association between TBI and excess risk for diabetes has also been observed by other investigators. These data suggest that survivors might benefit from targeted screening and lifestyle counseling regarding risk reduction measures.
|Predisposing Therapy||Potential Late Effects||Health Screening|
|BMI = body mass index.|
|Total-body irradiation||Metabolic syndrome||Exam (annual): height, weight, BMI, blood pressure|
|Labs: fasting glucose and lipids every 2 years|
Changes in Body Composition: Obesity and Body Fatness
To date, the primary cancer groups recognized with an increased incidence of treatment-related obesity are ALL [57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71] and CNS tumor [13,14,72] survivors treated with cranial radiation therapy.[73,74] In addition, craniopharyngioma survivors also have a substantially increased risk of extreme obesity due to the tumor location and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) damage resulting from surgical resection.[75,76,77,78,79,80,81]
Moderate-dose cranial radiation therapy (18 Gy–24 Gy) among ALL survivors is associated with obesity, particularly in females treated at a young age.[61,67,82] Female adult survivors of childhood ALL who were treated with cranial radiation therapy of 24 Gy prior to age 5 years are four times more likely to be obese in comparison with women who have not been treated for a cancer. In addition, women treated with 18 Gy to 24 Gy cranial radiation therapy prior to age 10 years have a substantially greater rate of increase in their body mass index (BMI) through their young adult years in comparison with women who were treated for ALL with only chemotherapy or with women in the general population. It appears that these women also have a significantly increased visceral adiposity and associated insulin resistance.[83,84] These outcomes are attenuated in males. Interestingly, among brain tumor survivors treated with higher doses of cranial radiation therapy, only females treated at a younger age appear to be at increased risk for obesity. The development of obesity following cranial radiation therapy is multifactorial, with factors including GHD, leptin sensitivity, reduced levels of physical activity, and energy expenditure.[67,86,87] Importantly, survivors of childhood cancer treated with TBI in preparation for an allogeneic HSCT have increased measures of body fatness (percent fat) while often having a normal BMI.[55,88]
It remains controversial whether contemporary ALL therapy, without cranial radiation therapy, is associated with a sustained increase in BMI. During and soon after completion of therapy, there appears to be an increase in BMI z-scores among children treated for ALL with only chemotherapy.[68,69,70,89] However, investigators from the CCSS did not find a significant association among adult survivors of childhood ALL between chemotherapy-only protocols and risk of obesity or change in BMI over time. Notably, while there may not be an increased incidence of obesity, as measured by BMI, among adult survivors of childhood ALL, there does appear to be an increase in percent body fat [66,71,84,90] and visceral adiposity.
|Predisposing Therapy||Potential Late Effects||Health Screening|
|BMI = body mass index.|
|Cranial radiation therapy||Overweight/obesity||Exam (annual): height, weight, BMI, blood pressure|
|Labs: fasting glucose and lipids every 2 years|
Refer to the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers for endocrine and metabolic syndrome late effects information including risk factors, evaluation, and health counseling.
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|50.||Surapolchai P, Hongeng S, Mahachoklertwattana P, et al.: Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: prevalence and risk factors. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 32 (5): 383-9, 2010.|
|51.||Oeffinger KC, Buchanan GR, Eshelman DA, et al.: Cardiovascular risk factors in young adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 23 (7): 424-30, 2001.|
|52.||Gurney JG, Ness KK, Sibley SD, et al.: Metabolic syndrome and growth hormone deficiency in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer 107 (6): 1303-12, 2006.|
|53.||Shalitin S, Phillip M, Stein J, et al.: Endocrine dysfunction and parameters of the metabolic syndrome after bone marrow transplantation during childhood and adolescence. Bone Marrow Transplant 37 (12): 1109-17, 2006.|
|54.||Oudin C, Simeoni MC, Sirvent N, et al.: Prevalence and risk factors of the metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood leukemia. Blood 117 (17): 4442-8, 2011.|
|55.||Neville KA, Cohn RJ, Steinbeck KS, et al.: Hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes mellitus in survivors of childhood cancer: prevalence and risk factors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91 (11): 4401-7, 2006.|
|56.||Baker KS, Ness KK, Steinberger J, et al.: Diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular events in survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation: a report from the bone marrow transplantation survivor study. Blood 109 (4): 1765-72, 2007.|
|57.||Birkebaek NH, Fisker S, Clausen N, et al.: Growth and endocrinological disorders up to 21 years after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. Med Pediatr Oncol 30 (6): 351-6, 1998.|
|58.||Craig F, Leiper AD, Stanhope R, et al.: Sexually dimorphic and radiation dose dependent effect of cranial irradiation on body mass index. Arch Dis Child 81 (6): 500-4, 1999.|
|59.||Mayer EI, Reuter M, Dopfer RE, et al.: Energy expenditure, energy intake and prevalence of obesity after therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia during childhood. Horm Res 53 (4): 193-9, 2000.|
|60.||Nysom K, Holm K, Michaelsen KF, et al.: Degree of fatness after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84 (12): 4591-6, 1999.|
|61.||Oeffinger KC, Mertens AC, Sklar CA, et al.: Obesity in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Oncol 21 (7): 1359-65, 2003.|
|62.||Razzouk BI, Rose SR, Hongeng S, et al.: Obesity in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 25 (10): 1183-9, 2007.|
|63.||Schell MJ, Ochs JJ, Schriock EA, et al.: A method of predicting adult height and obesity in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 10 (1): 128-33, 1992.|
|64.||Sklar CA, Mertens AC, Walter A, et al.: Changes in body mass index and prevalence of overweight in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: role of cranial irradiation. Med Pediatr Oncol 35 (2): 91-5, 2000.|
|65.||Van Dongen-Melman JE, Hokken-Koelega AC, Hählen K, et al.: Obesity after successful treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. Pediatr Res 38 (1): 86-90, 1995.|
|66.||Warner JT, Evans WD, Webb DK, et al.: Body composition of long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Med Pediatr Oncol 38 (3): 165-72, 2002.|
|67.||Garmey EG, Liu Q, Sklar CA, et al.: Longitudinal changes in obesity and body mass index among adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Oncol 26 (28): 4639-45, 2008.|
|68.||Chow EJ, Pihoker C, Hunt K, et al.: Obesity and hypertension among children after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer 110 (10): 2313-20, 2007.|
|69.||Withycombe JS, Post-White JE, Meza JL, et al.: Weight patterns in children with higher risk ALL: A report from the Children's Oncology Group (COG) for CCG 1961. Pediatr Blood Cancer 53 (7): 1249-54, 2009.|
|70.||Dalton VK, Rue M, Silverman LB, et al.: Height and weight in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: relationship to CNS treatment. J Clin Oncol 21 (15): 2953-60, 2003.|
|71.||Miller TL, Lipsitz SR, Lopez-Mitnik G, et al.: Characteristics and determinants of adiposity in pediatric cancer survivors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19 (8): 2013-22, 2010.|
|72.||Pietilä S, Mäkipernaa A, Sievänen H, et al.: Obesity and metabolic changes are common in young childhood brain tumor survivors. Pediatr Blood Cancer 52 (7): 853-9, 2009.|
|73.||Meacham LR, Gurney JG, Mertens AC, et al.: Body mass index in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer 103 (8): 1730-9, 2005.|
|74.||Nathan PC, Jovcevska V, Ness KK, et al.: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in pediatric survivors of cancer. J Pediatr 149 (4): 518-25, 2006.|
|75.||Sahakitrungruang T, Klomchan T, Supornsilchai V, et al.: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin dynamics in children after craniopharyngioma surgery. Eur J Pediatr 170 (6): 763-9, 2011.|
|76.||Müller HL: Childhood craniopharyngioma--current concepts in diagnosis, therapy and follow-up. Nat Rev Endocrinol 6 (11): 609-18, 2010.|
|77.||Müller HL: Childhood craniopharyngioma: current controversies on management in diagnostics, treatment and follow-up. Expert Rev Neurother 10 (4): 515-24, 2010.|
|78.||Simoneau-Roy J, O'Gorman C, Pencharz P, et al.: Insulin sensitivity and secretion in children and adolescents with hypothalamic obesity following treatment for craniopharyngioma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 72 (3): 364-70, 2010.|
|79.||Vinchon M, Weill J, Delestret I, et al.: Craniopharyngioma and hypothalamic obesity in children. Childs Nerv Syst 25 (3): 347-52, 2009.|
|80.||May JA, Krieger MD, Bowen I, et al.: Craniopharyngioma in childhood. Adv Pediatr 53: 183-209, 2006.|
|81.||Müller HL, Gebhardt U, Teske C, et al.: Post-operative hypothalamic lesions and obesity in childhood craniopharyngioma: results of the multinational prospective trial KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2000 after 3-year follow-up. Eur J Endocrinol 165 (1): 17-24, 2011.|
|82.||Didi M, Didcock E, Davies HA, et al.: High incidence of obesity in young adults after treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. J Pediatr 127 (1): 63-7, 1995.|
|83.||Janiszewski PM, Oeffinger KC, Church TS, et al.: Abdominal obesity, liver fat, and muscle composition in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92 (10): 3816-21, 2007.|
|84.||Oeffinger KC, Adams-Huet B, Victor RG, et al.: Insulin resistance and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 27 (22): 3698-704, 2009.|
|85.||Gurney JG, Ness KK, Stovall M, et al.: Final height and body mass index among adult survivors of childhood brain cancer: childhood cancer survivor study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88 (10): 4731-9, 2003.|
|86.||Oeffinger KC: Are survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at increased risk of cardiovascular disease? Pediatr Blood Cancer 50 (2 Suppl): 462-7; discussion 468, 2008.|
|87.||Brennan BM, Rahim A, Blum WF, et al.: Hyperleptinaemia in young adults following cranial irradiation in childhood: growth hormone deficiency or leptin insensitivity? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 50 (2): 163-9, 1999.|
|88.||Nysom K, Holm K, Michaelsen KF, et al.: Degree of fatness after allogeneic BMT for childhood leukaemia or lymphoma. Bone Marrow Transplant 27 (8): 817-20, 2001.|
|89.||Kohler JA, Moon RJ, Wright S, et al.: Increased adiposity and altered adipocyte function in female survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated without cranial radiation. Horm Res Paediatr 75 (6): 433-40, 2011.|
|90.||Jarfelt M, Lannering B, Bosaeus I, et al.: Body composition in young adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Eur J Endocrinol 153 (1): 81-9, 2005.|
Surgical or functional splenectomy increases risk of life-threatening invasive bacterial infection. Although staging laparotomy is no longer standard practice for pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma, patients from earlier time periods have ongoing risks.[2,3] In addition, children may be rendered asplenic by radiation therapy to the spleen in doses greater than 30 Gy.[4,5] Low-dose involved-field radiation (21 Gy) combined with multiagent chemotherapy did not appear to adversely affect splenic function as measured by pitted red blood cell assays. No other studies of immune status after radiation therapy are available. Functional asplenia (with Howell Jolly bodies, reduced splenic size and blood flow) after bone marrow transplantation has been attributed to graft-versus-host disease.
A pneumococcal vaccine booster is recommended for patients aged 10 years and older and more than 5 years after previous dose. Asplenic patients should also be immunized against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type B and should receive antibiotic prophylaxis for dental work.
Prophylactic antibiotics (penicillin or similar broad-spectrum agent) have been recommended for at least 2 to 3 years after splenectomy and until at least 5 years of age for young children. Randomized studies that address the benefit of daily prophylactic antibiotics have not been conducted in a pediatric oncology population; thus, these recommendations are based on extrapolated study data derived from other populations with asplenia.[8,9,10,11] The benefit of prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis is also unknown. Many patients, over time, discontinue use of penicillin; consideration should be given to ensuring availability of appropriate antibiotics for use at the first onset of febrile illness in patients who are not on daily prophylaxis. Medical care should be sought promptly for fevers higher than 38.5°C.
|Predisposing Therapy||Immunologic Effects||Health Screening/Interventions|
|GVHD = graft-versus-host disease; HSCT = hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; T = temperature.|
|Radiation impacting spleen; splenectomy; HSCT with currently active GVHD||Asplenia/hyposplenia; overwhelming post-splenectomy sepsis||Blood cultures during febrile episodes (T >38.5°C); empiric antibiotics|
|HSCT with any history of chronic GVHD||Immunologic complications (secretory IgA deficiency, hypogammaglobulinemia, decreased B cells, T cell dysfunction, chronic infections [e.g., conjunctivitis, sinusitis, and bronchitis associated with chronic GVHD])||History: chronic conjunctivitis, chronic sinusitis, chronic bronchitis, recurrent or unusual infections, sepsis|
|Exam: attention to eyes, nose/sinuses, and lungs|
Refer to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Guidelines for Preventing Opportunistic Infections Among Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients for more information on posttransplant immunization.
Although the immune system appears to recover from the effects of active chemotherapy and radiation, there is some evidence that lymphoid subsets may not always normalize. Innate immunity, thymopoiesis, and DNA damage responses to radiation were shown to be abnormal in survivors of childhood leukemia. Antibody levels to previous vaccinations are also reduced in patients off therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia for at least one year,[13,14] suggesting persistence of abnormal humoral immunity  and a need for revaccination in such children. Immune status is also compromised after stem cell transplantation, particularly in association with graft-versus-host disease. Follow-up recommendations for transplant recipients have been published by the major North American and European transplant groups, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Infectious Diseases Society of America.[17,18]
Refer to the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers for immune system late effects information including risk factors, evaluation, and health counseling.
|1.||Pickering LK, Peter G, Baker CJ, eds.: 2000 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 25th ed. Elk Grove Village, Ill: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2000.|
|2.||Kaiser CW: Complications from staging laparotomy for Hodgkin disease. J Surg Oncol 16 (4): 319-25, 1981.|
|3.||Jockovich M, Mendenhall NP, Sombeck MD, et al.: Long-term complications of laparotomy in Hodgkin's disease. Ann Surg 219 (6): 615-21; discussion 621-4, 1994.|
|4.||Coleman CN, McDougall IR, Dailey MO, et al.: Functional hyposplenia after splenic irradiation for Hodgkin's disease. Ann Intern Med 96 (1): 44-7, 1982.|
|5.||Weiner MA, Landmann RG, DeParedes L, et al.: Vesiculated erythrocytes as a determination of splenic reticuloendothelial function in pediatric patients with Hodgkin's disease. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 17 (4): 338-41, 1995.|
|6.||Immunocompromised children. In: Pickering LK, Baker CJ, Kimberlin DW, et al., eds.: 2009 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 28th ed. Elk Grove Village, Il: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2009, pp 72-86.|
|7.||Spelman D, Buttery J, Daley A, et al.: Guidelines for the prevention of sepsis in asplenic and hyposplenic patients. Intern Med J 38 (5): 349-56, 2008.|
|8.||Waghorn DJ, Mayon-White RT: A study of 42 episodes of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection: is current guidance for asplenic individuals being followed? J Infect 35 (3): 289-94, 1997.|
|9.||Ejstrud P, Kristensen B, Hansen JB, et al.: Risk and patterns of bacteraemia after splenectomy: a population-based study. Scand J Infect Dis 32 (5): 521-5, 2000.|
|10.||Bisharat N, Omari H, Lavi I, et al.: Risk of infection and death among post-splenectomy patients. J Infect 43 (3): 182-6, 2001.|
|11.||Davidson RN, Wall RA: Prevention and management of infections in patients without a spleen. Clin Microbiol Infect 7 (12): 657-60, 2001.|
|12.||Schwartz C L, Hobbie WL, Constine LS, et al., eds.: Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Assessment and Management. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby, 1994.|
|13.||Leung W, Neale G, Behm F, et al.: Deficient innate immunity, thymopoiesis, and gene expression response to radiation in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Epidemiol 34 (3): 303-8, 2010.|
|14.||Aytac S, Yalcin SS, Cetin M, et al.: Measles, mumps, and rubella antibody status and response to immunization in children after therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 27 (5): 333-43, 2010.|
|15.||Brodtman DH, Rosenthal DW, Redner A, et al.: Immunodeficiency in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after completion of modern aggressive chemotherapeutic regimens. J Pediatr 146 (5): 654-61, 2005.|
|16.||Olkinuora HA, Taskinen MH, Saarinen-Pihkala UM, et al.: Multiple viral infections post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are linked to the appearance of chronic GVHD among pediatric recipients of allogeneic grafts. Pediatr Transplant 14 (2): 242-8, 2010.|
|17.||Rizzo JD, Wingard JR, Tichelli A, et al.: Recommended screening and preventive practices for long-term survivors after hematopoietic cell transplantation: joint recommendations of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, and the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT/CIBMTR/ASBMT). Bone Marrow Transplant 37 (3): 249-61, 2006.|
|18.||Tomblyn M, Chiller T, Einsele H, et al.: Guidelines for preventing infectious complications among hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients: a global perspective. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 15 (10): 1143-238, 2009.|
Essentially all forms of cancer therapy, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, can affect the musculoskeletal system of a growing child or adolescent. The following outcomes affecting the musculoskeletal system are discussed: bone and joint late effects (abnormal bone and muscle growth, amputation/limb-sparing surgery, joint contracture, osteoporosis/fractures, osteonecrosis) and changes in body composition (obesity and body fatness). While these late effects are discussed individually, it is important to remember that all of the components within the musculoskeletal system are interrelated. For example, hypoplasia to a muscle group can negatively affect the function of the long bones and the resultant dysfunction can subsequently lead to disuse and osteoporosis.
Bone and Joint
Abnormal bone growth
In an age- and dose-dependent fashion, radiation can inhibit normal bone and muscle maturation and development. Radiation to the head (e.g., cranial, orbital, infratemporal, or nasopharyngeal radiation therapy) can cause craniofacial abnormalities, particularly in children treated before age 5 years or with radiation doses of 20 Gy or more.[1,2,3,4,5] Soft tissue sarcomas, such as orbital rhabdomyosarcoma and retinoblastoma are two of the more common cancer groups with these radiation fields. Often, in addition to the cosmetic impact of the craniofacial abnormalities, there can be related dental and sinus problems.
Radiation therapy can also directly affect the growth of the spine and long bones (and associated muscle groups) and can cause premature closure of the epiphyses, leading to short stature, scoliosis/kyphosis, or limb length discrepancy.[6,7,8,9,10,11,12] Orthovoltage, commonly used before 1970, delivered higher doses of radiation to the bone and was commonly related to abnormalities in bone growth. However, even with contemporary radiation therapy, if the location of the solid tumor is near an epiphysis or the spine, alterations in normal bone development can be difficult to avoid.
The effects of radiation administered to the spine on stature in survivors of Wilms tumor were assessed in the National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS), studies 1 through 4. Stature loss in 2,778 children treated on NWTS 1 to 4 was evaluated. Repeated height measurements were collected during long-term follow-up. The effects of radiation dosage, age at treatment, and chemotherapy on stature were analyzed using statistical models that accounted for the normal variation in height with gender and advancing age. Predictions from the model were validated by descriptive analysis of heights measured at ages 17 to 18 years for 205 patients. For those younger than 12 months at diagnosis who received more than 10 Gy, the estimated adult height deficit was 7.7 cm when contrasted with the nonradiation group. For those who received 10 Gy, the estimated trunk shortening was 2.8 cm or less. Among those whose height measurements in the teenage years were available, patients who received more than 15 Gy of radiation therapy were 4 to 7 cm shorter on average than their nonirradiated counterparts, with a dose-response relationship evident. Chemotherapy did not confer additional risk. The effects of radiation on the development of scoliosis have also been re-evaluated. In a group of 42 children treated for Wilms tumor from 1968 to 1994, scoliosis was seen in 18 patients, with only one patient needing orthopedic intervention. Median time to development of scoliosis was 102 months (range 16–146 months). A clear dose-response relationship was seen, with children treated with lower dosages (<24 Gy) of radiation having a significantly lower incidence of scoliosis than those who received more than 24 Gy of radiation. There was also a suggestion that the incidence was lower in patients who received 10 to 12 Gy, the dosages currently used for Wilms tumor, although the sample size was small.
Also, cranial radiation therapy damages the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) in an age- and dose-response fashion, often leading to growth hormone deficiency (GHD).[14,15] If untreated during the growing years, and sometimes, even with appropriate treatment, this leads to a substantially lower final height. Patients with a central nervous system (CNS) tumor [14,16] or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)[17,18,19] treated with 18 Gy or more of cranial radiation therapy are at highest risk. Also, patients treated with total-body irradiation (TBI), particularly single fraction TBI, are at risk of GHD.[20,21,22,23] In addition, if the spine is also irradiated (e.g., craniospinal radiation therapy for medulloblastoma or early ALL therapies in the 1960s), growth can be affected by two separate mechanisms—GHD and direct damage to the spine.
Amputation and limb-sparing surgery
Amputation and limb-sparing surgery prevent local recurrence of bone tumors by removal of all gross and microscopic disease. If optimally executed, both procedures accomplish an en bloc excision of tumor with a margin of normal uninvolved tissue. The type of surgical procedure, the primary tumor site, and the age of the patient affect the risk of postsurgical complications. Complications in survivors treated with amputation include stump-prosthetic problems, chronic stump pain, phantom limb pain, and bone overgrowth.[25,26] While limb-sparing surgeries may offer a more aesthetically pleasing outcome, complications have been reported more frequently in survivors undergoing these procedures compared with those treated with amputation. Complications after limb-sparing surgery include non-union, pathologic fracture, aseptic loosening, limb-length discrepancy, endoprosthetic fracture, poor joint movement, and stump-prosthesis problems.[25,27] Occasionally, refractory complications develop after limb-sparing surgery and require amputation.[28,29] A number of studies have compared functional outcomes after amputation and limb-sparing surgery, but results have been limited by inconsistent methods of functional assessment and small cohort sizes. Overall, data suggest that limb-sparing surgery results in better function than amputation, but differences are relatively modest.[25,29] Similarly, long-term quality of life outcomes among survivors undergoing amputation and limb sparing procedures have not differed substantially.
Maximal peak bone mass is an important factor influencing the risk of osteoporosis and fracture associated with aging. Methotrexate has a cytotoxic effect on osteoblasts, resulting in a reduction of bone volume and formation of new bone.[33,34] This effect may be exacerbated by the chronic use of corticosteroids, another class of agents routinely used in the treatment of hematological malignancies and in supportive care for a variety of pediatric cancers. Radiation-related endocrinopathies, such as GHD or hypogonadism, may contribute to ongoing bone mineral loss.[35,36] In addition, suboptimal nutrition and physical inactivity may further predispose to deficits in bone mineral accretion.
Most of our knowledge about cancer and its treatment effects on bone mineralization has been derived from studies of children with ALL.[24,33] In this group, the leukemic process, and possibly vitamin D deficiency, may play a role in the alterations in bone metabolism and bone mass observed at diagnosis. Antileukemic therapy causes further bone mineral density (BMD) loss,  which has been reported to normalize over time [39,40] or to persist for many years after completion of therapy.[41,42] Clinical factors predicting higher risk for low BMD include treatment with high cumulative doses of methotrexate (>40 g/m2), high cumulative doses of corticosteroids (>9 g/m2), and use of more potent glucocorticoids like dexamethasone.[41,43,44] Investigations evaluating the contribution of cranial radiation to the risk of low BMD in childhood cancer survivors have yielded conflicting results.[41,45] BMD deficits that are likely multifactorial in etiology have been reported in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients conditioned with TBI.[46,47] French investigators observed a significant risk for lower femoral BMD among adult survivors of childhood leukemia treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) who had gonadal deficiency. Hormonal therapy has been shown to enhance BMD of adolescent girls diagnosed with hypogonadism after HSCT.[Level of evidence: 3iiiC]
Osteonecrosis (also known as aseptic or avascular necrosis) is a rare, but well-recognized skeletal complication observed predominantly in survivors of pediatric hematological malignancies treated with corticosteroids.[24,52,53,54] The condition is characterized by death of one or more segments of bone that most often affects weight-bearing joints, especially the hips and knees. Longitudinal cohort studies have identified a spectrum of clinical manifestations of osteonecrosis, ranging from asymptomatic spontaneously-resolving imaging changes to painful progressive articular collapse requiring joint replacement.[55,56] Symptomatic osteonecrosis characterized by pain, joint swelling, and reduced mobility typically presents during therapy. These symptoms may improve over time, persist, or progress in the years after completion of therapy. The prevalence of osteonecrosis has varied from 1% to 22% based on the study population, treatment protocol, method of evaluation, and time from treatment.[52,57,58,59,60,61]
The most important clinical risk factor for osteonecrosis is treatment with substantial doses of glucocorticoids, as is typical in regimens used for ALL, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and HSCT.[59,62,63,64,65] Delayed intensification therapies for childhood ALL featuring the more potent glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, have been speculated to enhance risk since osteonecrosis was infrequently reported before this approach became more widely used in the 1990s. However, currently available results suggest that cumulative corticosteroid dose may be a better predictor of this complication.[52,62] Higher cholesterol, lower albumin, and higher dexamethasone exposure have been associated with a higher risk of symptomatic osteonecrosis, suggesting that agents like asparaginase may potentiate the osteonecrotic effect of dexamethasone.
Osteonecrosis is more common in adolescents than in children, with the highest risk among those who are older than 10 years.[52,61,62] Osteonecrosis also occurs much more frequently in whites than in blacks.[52,65] Studies evaluating the influence of gender on the risk of osteonecrosis have yielded conflicting results, with some suggesting a higher incidence in females [52,55] that has not been confirmed by others.[54,55,62] Genetic factors influencing antifolate and glucocorticoid metabolism have also been linked to excess risk of osteonecrosis among survivors. St. Jude Children's Research Hospital investigators observed an almost sixfold (odds ratio = 5.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7–11.3) risk of osteonecrosis among survivors with polymorphism of the ACP1 gene, which regulates lipid levels and osteoblast differentiation.
Approximately 5% of children undergoing myeloablative stem cell transplantation will develop osteochondroma (OC), a benign bone tumor that most commonly presents in the metaphyseal regions of long bones. OC generally occurs as a single lesion, however multiple lesions may develop in the context of hereditary multiple osteochondromatosis. A large Italian study reported a 6.1% cumulative risk of developing OC at 15 years posttransplant, with increased risk associated with younger age at transplant (≤3 yrs) and use of TBI. Growth hormone therapy may influence the onset and pace of growth of OCs.[23,68] Because malignant degeneration of these lesions is exceptionally rare, clinical rather than radiological follow-up is most appropriate, and surgery for biopsy or resection is generally unnecessary.
|Predisposing Therapy||Musculoskeletal Effects||Health Screening|
|CT = computed tomography; DXA = dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; GVHD = graft-versus-host disease; HSCT = hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.|
|Radiation impacting musculoskeletal system||Hypoplasia; fibrosis; reduced/uneven growth (scoliosis, kyphosis); limb length discrepancy||Exam: bones and soft tissues in radiation fields|
|Radiation impacting head and neck||Craniofacial abnormalities||History: psychosocial assessment, with attention to: educational and/or vocational progress, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, social withdrawal|
|Head and neck exam|
|Radiation impacting musculoskeletal system||Radiation-induced fracture||Exam of affected bone|
|Methotrexate; corticosteroids (dexamethasone, prednisone); radiation impacting skeletal structures; HSCT||Reduced bone mineral density||Bone mineral density test (DXA or quantitative CT)|
|Corticosteroids (dexamethasone, prednisone)||Osteonecrosis||History: joint pain, swelling, immobility, limited range of motion|
|Radiation with impact to oral cavity||Osteoradionecrosis||History/oral exam: impaired or delayed healing following dental work, persistent jaw pain or swelling, trismus|
|HSCT with any history of chronic GVHD||Joint contracture||Musculoskeletal exam|
|Amputation||Amputation-related complications (impaired cosmesis, functional/activity limitations, residual limb integrity, chronic pain, increased energy expenditure)||History: pain, functional/activity limitations|
|Exam: residual limb integrity|
|Limb-sparing surgery||Limb-sparing surgical complications (functional/activity limitations, fibrosis, contractures, chronic infection, chronic pain, limb length discrepancy, increased energy expenditure, prosthetic malfunction [loosening, non-union, fracture])||History: pain, functional/activity limitations|
|Exam: residual limb integrity|
|Radiograph of affected limb|
Refer to the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers for musculoskeletal system late effects information including risk factors, evaluation, and health counseling.
|1.||Denys D, Kaste SC, Kun LE, et al.: The effects of radiation on craniofacial skeletal growth: a quantitative study. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 45 (1): 7-13, 1998.|
|2.||Estilo CL, Huryn JM, Kraus DH, et al.: Effects of therapy on dentofacial development in long-term survivors of head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma: the memorial sloan-kettering cancer center experience. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 25 (3): 215-22, 2003.|
|3.||Gevorgyan A, La Scala GC, Neligan PC, et al.: Radiation-induced craniofacial bone growth disturbances. J Craniofac Surg 18 (5): 1001-7, 2007.|
|4.||Karsila-Tenovuo S, Jahnukainen K, Peltomäki T, et al.: Disturbances in craniofacial morphology in children treated for solid tumors. Oral Oncol 37 (7): 586-92, 2001.|
|5.||Kaste SC, Chen G, Fontanesi J, et al.: Orbital development in long-term survivors of retinoblastoma. J Clin Oncol 15 (3): 1183-9, 1997.|
|6.||Fletcher BD: Effects of pediatric cancer therapy on the musculoskeletal system. Pediatr Radiol 27 (8): 623-36, 1997.|
|7.||Hogeboom CJ, Grosser SC, Guthrie KA, et al.: Stature loss following treatment for Wilms tumor. Med Pediatr Oncol 36 (2): 295-304, 2001.|
|8.||Katzman H, Waugh T, Berdon W: Skeletal changes following irradiation of childhood tumors. J Bone Joint Surg Am 51 (5): 825-42, 1969.|
|9.||Merchant TE, Nguyen L, Nguyen D, et al.: Differential attenuation of clavicle growth after asymmetric mantle radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59 (2): 556-61, 2004.|
|10.||Probert JC, Parker BR: The effects of radiation therapy on bone growth. Radiology 114 (1): 155-62, 1975.|
|11.||Probert JC, Parker BR, Kaplan HS: Growth retardation in children after megavoltage irradiation of the spine. Cancer 32 (3): 634-9, 1973.|
|12.||Willman KY, Cox RS, Donaldson SS: Radiation induced height impairment in pediatric Hodgkin's disease. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 28 (1): 85-92, 1994.|
|13.||Paulino AC, Wen BC, Brown CK, et al.: Late effects in children treated with radiation therapy for Wilms' tumor. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46 (5): 1239-46, 2000.|
|14.||Sklar CA, Constine LS: Chronic neuroendocrinological sequelae of radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 31 (5): 1113-21, 1995.|
|15.||Brownstein CM, Mertens AC, Mitby PA, et al.: Factors that affect final height and change in height standard deviation scores in survivors of childhood cancer treated with growth hormone: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89 (9): 4422-7, 2004.|
|16.||Packer RJ, Boyett JM, Janss AJ, et al.: Growth hormone replacement therapy in children with medulloblastoma: use and effect on tumor control. J Clin Oncol 19 (2): 480-7, 2001.|
|17.||Chow EJ, Friedman DL, Yasui Y, et al.: Decreased adult height in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Pediatr 150 (4): 370-5, 375.e1, 2007.|
|18.||Sklar C, Mertens A, Walter A, et al.: Final height after treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: comparison of no cranial irradiation with 1800 and 2400 centigrays of cranial irradiation. J Pediatr 123 (1): 59-64, 1993.|
|19.||Bongers ME, Francken AB, Rouwé C, et al.: Reduction of adult height in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors after prophylactic cranial irradiation. Pediatr Blood Cancer 45 (2): 139-43, 2005.|
|20.||Huma Z, Boulad F, Black P, et al.: Growth in children after bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia. Blood 86 (2): 819-24, 1995.|
|21.||Leung W, Ahn H, Rose SR, et al.: A prospective cohort study of late sequelae of pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Medicine (Baltimore) 86 (4): 215-24, 2007.|
|22.||Sanders JE: Growth and development after hematopoietic cell transplant in children. Bone Marrow Transplant 41 (2): 223-7, 2008.|
|23.||Sanders JE, Guthrie KA, Hoffmeister PA, et al.: Final adult height of patients who received hematopoietic cell transplantation in childhood. Blood 105 (3): 1348-54, 2005.|
|24.||Oeffinger KC, Hudson MM, Landier W: Survivorship: childhood cancer survivors. Prim Care 36 (4): 743-80, 2009.|
|25.||Nagarajan R, Neglia JP, Clohisy DR, et al.: Limb salvage and amputation in survivors of pediatric lower-extremity bone tumors: what are the long-term implications? J Clin Oncol 20 (22): 4493-501, 2002.|
|26.||Aulivola B, Hile CN, Hamdan AD, et al.: Major lower extremity amputation: outcome of a modern series. Arch Surg 139 (4): 395-9; discussion 399, 2004.|
|27.||Kaste SC, Neel MN, Rao BN, et al.: Complications of limb-sparing procedures using endoprosthetic replacements about the knee for pediatric skeletal sarcomas. Pediatr Radiol 31 (2): 62-71, 2001.|
|28.||Eiser C, Darlington AS, Stride CB, et al.: Quality of life implications as a consequence of surgery: limb salvage, primary and secondary amputation. Sarcoma 5 (4): 189-95, 2001.|
|29.||Renard AJ, Veth RP, Schreuder HW, et al.: Function and complications after ablative and limb-salvage therapy in lower extremity sarcoma of bone. J Surg Oncol 73 (4): 198-205, 2000.|
|30.||Antin JH: Clinical practice. Long-term care after hematopoietic-cell transplantation in adults. N Engl J Med 347 (1): 36-42, 2002.|
|31.||Beredjiklian PK, Drummond DS, Dormans JP, et al.: Orthopaedic manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease. J Pediatr Orthop 18 (5): 572-5, 1998 Sep-Oct.|
|32.||Flowers ME, Parker PM, Johnston LJ, et al.: Comparison of chronic graft-versus-host disease after transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells versus bone marrow in allogeneic recipients: long-term follow-up of a randomized trial. Blood 100 (2): 415-9, 2002.|
|33.||Wasilewski-Masker K, Kaste SC, Hudson MM, et al.: Bone mineral density deficits in survivors of childhood cancer: long-term follow-up guidelines and review of the literature. Pediatrics 121 (3): e705-13, 2008.|
|34.||Davies JH, Evans BA, Jenney ME, et al.: Skeletal morbidity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 63 (1): 1-9, 2005.|
|35.||van der Sluis IM, Boot AM, Hop WC, et al.: Long-term effects of growth hormone therapy on bone mineral density, body composition, and serum lipid levels in growth hormone deficient children: a 6-year follow-up study. Horm Res 58 (5): 207-14, 2002.|
|36.||van der Sluis IM, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Hählen K, et al.: Bone mineral density, body composition, and height in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. Med Pediatr Oncol 35 (4): 415-20, 2000.|
|37.||van der Sluis IM, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Hählen K, et al.: Altered bone mineral density and body composition, and increased fracture risk in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr 141 (2): 204-10, 2002.|
|38.||Arikoski P, Komulainen J, Riikonen P, et al.: Reduced bone density at completion of chemotherapy for a malignancy. Arch Dis Child 80 (2): 143-8, 1999.|
|39.||Brennan BM, Mughal Z, Roberts SA, et al.: Bone mineral density in childhood survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated without cranial irradiation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90 (2): 689-94, 2005.|
|40.||Kadan-Lottick N, Marshall JA, Barón AE, et al.: Normal bone mineral density after treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia diagnosed between 1991 and 1998. J Pediatr 138 (6): 898-904, 2001.|
|41.||Kaste SC, Jones-Wallace D, Rose SR, et al.: Bone mineral decrements in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: frequency of occurrence and risk factors for their development. Leukemia 15 (5): 728-34, 2001.|
|42.||Warner JT, Evans WD, Webb DK, et al.: Relative osteopenia after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Res 45 (4 Pt 1): 544-51, 1999.|
|43.||Mandel K, Atkinson S, Barr RD, et al.: Skeletal morbidity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 22 (7): 1215-21, 2004.|
|44.||Holzer G, Krepler P, Koschat MA, et al.: Bone mineral density in long-term survivors of highly malignant osteosarcoma. J Bone Joint Surg Br 85 (2): 231-7, 2003.|
|45.||Nysom K, Holm K, Michaelsen KF, et al.: Bone mass after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. J Clin Oncol 16 (12): 3752-60, 1998.|
|46.||Benmiloud S, Steffens M, Beauloye V, et al.: Long-term effects on bone mineral density of different therapeutic schemes for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma during childhood. Horm Res Paediatr 74 (4): 241-50, 2010.|
|47.||McClune BL, Polgreen LE, Burmeister LA, et al.: Screening, prevention and management of osteoporosis and bone loss in adult and pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant 46 (1): 1-9, 2011.|
|48.||Le Meignen M, Auquier P, Barlogis V, et al.: Bone mineral density in adult survivors of childhood acute leukemia: impact of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and other treatment modalities. Blood 118 (6): 1481-9, 2011.|
|49.||Kodama M, Komura H, Shimizu S, et al.: Efficacy of hormone therapy for osteoporosis in adolescent girls after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a longitudinal study. Fertil Steril 95 (2): 731-5, 2011.|
|50.||Paulino AC: Late effects of radiotherapy for pediatric extremity sarcomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60 (1): 265-74, 2004.|
|51.||Wagner LM, Neel MD, Pappo AS, et al.: Fractures in pediatric Ewing sarcoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 23 (9): 568-71, 2001.|
|52.||Mattano LA Jr, Sather HN, Trigg ME, et al.: Osteonecrosis as a complication of treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 18 (18): 3262-72, 2000.|
|53.||Sala A, Mattano LA Jr, Barr RD: Osteonecrosis in children and adolescents with cancer - an adverse effect of systemic therapy. Eur J Cancer 43 (4): 683-9, 2007.|
|54.||Elmantaser M, Stewart G, Young D, et al.: Skeletal morbidity in children receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Arch Dis Child 95 (10): 805-9, 2010.|
|55.||Aricò M, Boccalatte MF, Silvestri D, et al.: Osteonecrosis: An emerging complication of intensive chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Haematologica 88 (7): 747-53, 2003.|
|56.||Ribeiro RC, Fletcher BD, Kennedy W, et al.: Magnetic resonance imaging detection of avascular necrosis of the bone in children receiving intensive prednisone therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Leukemia 15 (6): 891-7, 2001.|
|57.||Bürger B, Beier R, Zimmermann M, et al.: Osteonecrosis: a treatment related toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)--experiences from trial ALL-BFM 95. Pediatr Blood Cancer 44 (3): 220-5, 2005.|
|58.||Karimova EJ, Rai SN, Howard SC, et al.: Femoral head osteonecrosis in pediatric and young adult patients with leukemia or lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 25 (12): 1525-31, 2007.|
|59.||Karimova EJ, Wozniak A, Wu J, et al.: How does osteonecrosis about the knee progress in young patients with leukemia?: a 2- to 7-year study. Clin Orthop Relat Res 468 (9): 2454-9, 2010.|
|60.||Campbell S, Sun CL, Kurian S, et al.: Predictors of avascular necrosis of bone in long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation. Cancer 115 (18): 4127-35, 2009.|
|61.||Kawedia JD, Kaste SC, Pei D, et al.: Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacogenetic determinants of osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 117 (8): 2340-7; quiz 2556, 2011.|
|62.||Strauss AJ, Su JT, Dalton VM, et al.: Bony morbidity in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 19 (12): 3066-72, 2001.|
|63.||Faraci M, Calevo MG, Lanino E, et al.: Osteonecrosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in childhood. A case-control study in Italy. Haematologica 91 (8): 1096-9, 2006.|
|64.||Fink JC, Leisenring WM, Sullivan KM, et al.: Avascular necrosis following bone marrow transplantation: a case-control study. Bone 22 (1): 67-71, 1998.|
|65.||Relling MV, Yang W, Das S, et al.: Pharmacogenetic risk factors for osteonecrosis of the hip among children with leukemia. J Clin Oncol 22 (19): 3930-6, 2004.|
|66.||Bovée JV: Multiple osteochondromas. Orphanet J Rare Dis 3: 3, 2008.|
|67.||Faraci M, Bagnasco F, Corti P, et al.: Osteochondroma after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in childhood. An Italian study on behalf of the AIEOP-HSCT group. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 15 (10): 1271-6, 2009.|
|68.||Bordigoni P, Turello R, Clement L, et al.: Osteochondroma after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: report of eight cases. Bone Marrow Transplant 29 (7): 611-4, 2002.|
|69.||Taitz J, Cohn RJ, White L, et al.: Osteochondroma after total body irradiation: an age-related complication. Pediatr Blood Cancer 42 (3): 225-9, 2004.|
The treatment of cancer in children and adolescents may adversely affect their subsequent reproductive function. Germ cell survival may be adversely affected by radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Ovarian damage results in both sterilization and loss of hormone production because ovarian hormonal production is closely related to the presence of ova and maturation of the primary follicle. These functions are not as intimately related in the testis. As a result, men may have normal androgen production in the presence of azoospermia.
Surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy may damage testicular function. Patients who undergo unilateral orchiectomy for testicular torsion may have subnormal sperm counts at long-term follow-up.[1,2] Retrograde ejaculation is a frequent complication of bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection performed on males with testicular neoplasms,[3,4] and impotence may occur following extensive pelvic dissections to remove a rhabdomyosarcoma of the prostate.
Men treated with whole-abdomen irradiation may develop gonadal dysfunction. In one study, five of ten men were azoospermic, and two were severely oligospermic when evaluated at ages 17 to 36 years following treatment with whole-abdomen irradiation for Wilms tumor at ages 1 to 11 years, with the penis and scrotum either excluded from the treatment volume, or shielded with 3 mm of lead. The testicular radiation doses varied from 796 cGy to 983 cGy. Others reported azoospermia in 100% of ten men 2 to 40 months after radiation therapy doses of 140 cGy to 300 cGy to both testes. Similarly, azoospermia was demonstrated in 100% of ten men following testicular radiation therapy doses of 118 cGy to 228 cGy. Recovery of spermatogenesis occurred after 44 to 77 weeks in 50% of the men, although three of the five with recovery had sperm counts below 20 x 106 /ml. Oligospermia or azoospermia was reported in 33% of 18 men evaluated 6 to 70 months after receiving testicular radiation doses of 28 cGy to 135 cGy. In another report, none of five men who received testicular radiation doses of less than 20 cGy became azoospermic. By contrast, two who received testicular radiation doses of 55 cGy to 70 cGy developed temporary oligospermia, with recovery to sperm counts greater than 20 x 106 /ml 18 to 24 months after treatment. In summary, a decrease in sperm counts can be seen 3 to 6 weeks after irradiation, and depending on the dosage, recovery may take 1 to 3 years. The germinal epithelium is damaged by much lower dosages (<1 Gy) of radiation than are Leydig cells (20–30 Gy). Complete sterilization may occur with fractionated irradiation greater than doses of 2 Gy to 4 Gy.
Administration of higher radiation doses, such as 2,400 cGy, which was used for the treatment of testicular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), results in both sterilization and Leydig cell dysfunction. Craniospinal irradiation produced primary germ cell damage in 17% of 23 children with ALL, but in none of four children with medulloblastoma. Total-body irradiation ([TBI] 950 cGy to 1575 cGy) and cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg/day for 2 days) produced azoospermia in almost all men.
Combination chemotherapy that includes an alkylating agent and procarbazine causes severe damage to the testicular germinal epithelium.[15,16,17,18,19] Azoospermia occurred less frequently in adults following treatment with two, rather than six, cycles of MOPP (mechlorethamine, vincristine [Oncovin], procarbazine, prednisone). Elevation of the basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level, reflecting impaired spermatogenesis, was less frequent among patients receiving two courses of OPPA (vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, doxorubicin) than among those who received two courses of OPPA in combination with two or more courses of COPP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine and prednisone).
Most studies suggest that procarbazine contributes significantly to the testicular toxicity of combination chemotherapy regimens. The combination of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine produced oligospermia or azoospermia in adults frequently during the course of treatment. However, recovery of spermatogenesis occurred after treatment was completed, in contrast to the experience reported following treatment with MOPP. Most studies suggested that prepubertal males were not at lower risk for chemotherapy-induced testicular damage than were postpubertal patients.[16,23,24,25]
Male survivors of non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent pelvic radiation therapy and received a cumulative cyclophosphamide dose greater than 9.5 g/m2 were at increased risk for failure to recover spermatogenesis; in survivors of Ewing and soft tissue sarcoma, treatment with a cumulative cyclophosphamide dose greater than 7.5 g/m2 was correlated with persistent oligospermia or azoospermia. Spermatogenesis was present in 67% of 15 men who received 200 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide prior to undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for aplastic anemia. Cyclophosphamide doses exceeding 7.5 g/m2 and ifosfamide doses exceeding 60 g/m2 produced oligospermia or azoospermia in most exposed individuals.[28,29,30]
The majority of postpubertal women who receive TBI prior to BMT develop amenorrhea. Recovery of normal ovarian function occurred in only 9 of 144 patients in one series and was highly correlated with age at irradiation in patients younger than 25 years. In a series restricted to patients who were prepubertal at the time of BMT, 44% (7 of 16) had clinical and biochemical evidence of ovarian failure.
The frequency of ovarian failure following abdominal radiation therapy is related to both the age of the woman at the time of irradiation and the radiation therapy dose received by the ovaries. Whole-abdomen irradiation produces severe ovarian damage. Seventy-one percent of women in one series failed to enter puberty and 26% had premature menopause following whole-abdominal radiation therapy doses of 2,000 cGy to 3,000 cGy. Other studies reported similar results in women treated with whole-abdomen irradiation  or craniospinal irradiation [35,36] during childhood.
Ovarian function may be impaired following treatment with combination chemotherapy that includes an alkylating agent and procarbazine such as MOPP; MVPP (nitrogen mustard [mechlorethamine], vinblastine, procarbazine, and prednisone); ChlVPP (chlorambucil, vinblastine, procarbazine, and prednisone); MDP (doxorubicin, prednisone, procarbazine, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide); or the combination of COP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and procarbazine) with ABVD (Adriamycin [doxorubicin], bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine). Amenorrhea was reported in 11% after MOPP (2 of 18 girls treated at age 2 to 15 years), 31% after MDP (10 of 31 girls treated at age 9.0 to 15.2 years), and 13% after ChIVPP (3 of 23 girls treated at age 6.1 to 20.0 years),[15,37,38] but in 0% after COP/ABVD (0 of 17 girls treated at age 4 to 20 years).
Ovarian function was evaluated in women treated with drug combinations that did not include procarbazine. Ovarian function was normal in all of six women treated for non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a cyclophosphamide containing drug combination. Others reported that pubertal progression was adversely affected in 5.8% of 17 patients treated before puberty compared with 33.3% of 18 patients treated during puberty or after menarche. However, the administration of cyclophosphamide did not correlate with the abnormal pubertal progression observed in these patients. Administration of ifosfamide 27 g/m2 to 90 g/m2 to 13 females resulted in evidence of impaired estrogen production in only one patient. Cisplatin administration resulted in amenorrhea in 14% of seven patients.
All women who received high-dose (50 mg/kg/day x 4 days) cyclophosphamide prior to BMT for aplastic anemia developed amenorrhea following transplantation. In one series, 36 of 43 women had recovery of normal ovarian function 3 to 42 months after transplantation, including all of the 27 patients who were between ages 13 and 25 years at the time of BMT.
Of 3,390 eligible participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), 215 (6.3%) developed acute ovarian failure (AOF). Survivors with AOF were older (aged 13–20 years vs. aged 0–12 years) at cancer diagnosis and more likely to have been diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma or to have received abdominal or pelvic radiation therapy than survivors without AOF. Of survivors who developed AOF, 75% had received abdominal-pelvic irradiation. Radiation doses to the ovary of at least 2,000 cGy were associated with the highest rate of AOF with over 70% of such patients developing AOF. In a multivariable logistic regression model, increasing doses of ovarian irradiation, exposure to procarbazine at any age, and exposure to cyclophosphamide at ages 13 to 20 years were independent risk factors for AOF.
The presence of apparently normal ovarian function at the completion of chemotherapy should not be interpreted as evidence that no ovarian injury has occurred. Premature menopause is well documented in childhood cancer survivors, especially in women treated with both an alkylating agent and abdominal irradiation.[44,45,46] A total of 126 childhood cancer survivors and 33 control siblings who participated in the CCSS developed premature menopause. Of these women, 61 survivors (48%) and 31 siblings (94%) had surgically-induced menopause (relative risk [RR] = 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.52–1.23). However, the cumulative incidence of nonsurgical premature menopause was substantially higher for survivors than for siblings (8% vs. 0.8%; RR = 13.21; 95% CI, 3.26–53.51; P < .001).
Figure 4. Cumulative incidence curves of nonsurgical premature menopause in survivors (solid line) compared with siblings (broken line). Vertical bars indicate 95% confidence intervals. Sklar C A et al. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:890-896. ©Sklar 2006. Published by Oxford University Press.
A multiple Poisson regression model showed that risk factors for nonsurgical premature menopause included attained age, exposure to increasing doses of radiation to the ovaries, increasing alkylating agent dose (AAD) score, and a diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma. For survivors who were treated with alkylating agents plus abdominal-pelvic radiation, the cumulative incidence of nonsurgical premature menopause approached 30%.
Fertility was evaluated among the 6,224 male CCSS participants aged 15 to 44 years who were not surgically sterile. They were less likely to sire a pregnancy than siblings (hazard ratio [HR] 0.56; 95% CI, 0.49–0.63). Among survivors, the HR of siring a pregnancy was decreased by radiation therapy greater than 750 cGy to the testes (HR = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02–0.64), higher summed AAD score or treatment with cyclophosphamide (third tertile - HR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.31–0.57) or procarbazine (second tertile - HR = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26–0.87; third tertile – HR = 0.17; 95% CI, 0.07–0.41). The HR of siring a pregnancy was inversely related to the summed AAD score (P -value for linear trend = <.001). Those who had a summed AAD score of 2 (HR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51–0.88; P = .004), 3 (HR = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.36–0.65; P <.001), 4 (HR = 0.34; 95% CI, 0.22–0.52; P <.001), 5 (HR = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.22–0.66; P <.001), or 6 to 11 (HR = 0.16; 95% CI, 0.08–0.32; P <.001) were also less likely to ever sire a pregnancy compared with those who did not receive any alkylating agents. Compared with siblings, the HR for ever siring a pregnancy for survivors who had an AAD score = 0 and a hypothalamic/pituitary radiation dose of 0 cGy and a testes radiation dose of 0 cGy was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.73–1.14; P = .41).
Fertility was evaluated among the 5,149 female CCSS participants and 1,441 female siblings of CCSS participants, aged 15 to 44 years. The RR for ever being pregnant was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.73–0.90; P < .001) compared with female siblings. In multivariate models among survivors only, those who received a hypothalamic/pituitary radiation dose of greater than 3,000 cGy (RR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44–0.83) or an ovarian/uterine radiation dose greater than 500 cGy were less likely to have ever been pregnant (RR = 0.56 for 500–1000 cGy; 95% CI, 0.37–0.85; RR = 0.18 for >1000 cGy; 95% CI, 0.13–0.26). A summed AAD score of 3 (RR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.58–0.90; P = .003) or 4 (RR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45–0.96; P = .03) was associated with lower observed risk of pregnancy compared with those with no alkylating agent exposure. Those with a summed AAD score of 3 or 4 or who were treated with lomustine or cyclophosphamide were less likely to have ever been pregnant. A follow-up study of the same cohort demonstrated impaired fertility in female survivors who received modest doses (22–27 Gy) of hypothalamic pituitary radiation and no or very low doses (<0.1 Gy) of ovarian radiation, providing support for the contribution of the role of luteal phase deficiency to infertility in some women.
Fertility may be impaired by factors other than the absence of sperm and ova. Conception requires delivery of sperm to the uterine cervix, patency of the fallopian tubes for fertilization to occur, and appropriate conditions in the uterus for implantation. Retrograde ejaculation occurs with a significant frequency in men who undergo bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Uterine structure may be affected by abdominal irradiation. A study demonstrated that uterine length was significantly shorter in ten women with ovarian failure who had been treated with whole abdomen irradiation. Endometrial thickness did not increase in response to hormone replacement therapy in three women who underwent weekly ultrasound examination. No flow was detectable with Doppler ultrasound through either uterine artery of five women, and through one uterine artery in three additional women.
For survivors who maintain fertility, numerous investigations have evaluated the prevalence of and risk factors for pregnancy complications in adults treated for cancer during childhood. Pregnancy complications including hypertension, fetal malposition, fetal loss/spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, and low birth weight have been observed in association with specific diagnostic and treatment groups.[46,47,48,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59] In a study of 4,029 pregnancies among 1,915 women followed in the CCSS, there were 63% live births, 1% stillbirths, 15% miscarriages, 17% abortions, and 3% unknown or in gestation. Risk of miscarriage was 3.6-fold higher in women treated with craniospinal radiation and 1.7-fold higher in those treated with pelvic radiation. Chemotherapy exposure alone did not increase risk of miscarriage. Compared with siblings, survivors were less likely to have live births, more likely to have medical abortions, and more likely to have low birth weight babies. In the same cohort, another study evaluated pregnancy outcomes of partners of male survivors. Among 4,106 sexually active males, 1,227 reported they sired 2,323 pregnancies, which resulted in 69% live births, 13% miscarriages, 13% abortions, and 5% unknown or in gestation at the time of analysis. Compared with partners of male siblings, there was a decreased incidence of live births (RR = 0.77), but no significant differences of pregnancy outcome by treatment. In the National Wilms Tumor Study, records were obtained for 1,021 pregnancies of more than 20 weeks duration. In this group, there were 955 single live births. Hypertension complicating pregnancy, early or threatened labor, malposition of the fetus, lower birth weight (<2,500 g), and premature delivery (<36 weeks) were more frequent among women who had received flank radiation, in a dose-dependent manner. Results from a Danish study confirm the association of uterine radiation with spontaneous but not other types of abortion. Thirty-four thousand pregnancies were evaluated in a population of 1,688 female survivors of childhood cancer in the Danish Cancer Registry. The pregnancy outcomes of survivors, 2,737 sisters, and 16,700 comparison women in the population were identified. No significant differences were seen between survivors and comparison women in the proportions of live births, stillbirths, or all types of abortions combined. Survivors with a history of neuroendocrine or abdominal radiation therapy had an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. Thus, the pregnancy outcomes of survivors were similar to those of comparison women with the exception of spontaneous abortion.
Progress in reproductive endocrinology has resulted in the availability of several options for preserving or permitting fertility in patients about to receive potentially toxic chemotherapy or radiation therapy. For males, cryopreservation of spermatozoa before treatment is an effective method to circumvent the sterilizing effect of therapy. Although pretreatment semen quality in patients with cancer has been shown to be less than that noted in healthy donors, the percentage decline in semen quality and the effect of cryodamage to spermatozoa from patients with cancer is similar to that of normal donors.[60,61,62,63] For those unable to bank sperm, newer technologies such as testicular sperm extraction may be an option. Further micromanipulative technologic advances such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection and similar techniques may be able to render sperm extracted surgically, or even poor-quality cryopreserved spermatozoa from cancer patients, capable of successful fertilization.
Preservation of fertility and successful pregnancies may occur after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, though the conditioning regimens that include TBI, cyclophosphamide, and busulfan are highly gonadotoxic. In a group of 21 females who had received a BMT in the prepubertal years, 12 (57%) were found to have ovarian failure when examined between ages 11 and 21 years, and the association with busulfan was significant. One study evaluated pregnancy outcomes in a group of females treated with BMT. Among 708 women who were postpubertal at the time of transplant, 116 regained normal ovarian function and 32 became pregnant. Among 82 women who were prepubertal at the time of transplant, 23 had normal ovarian function and nine became pregnant. Of the 72 pregnancies in these 41 women, 16 occurred in those treated with TBI and 50% resulted in early termination. Among the 56 pregnancies in women treated with cyclophosphamide without either TBI or busulfan, 21% resulted in early termination. There were no pregnancies among the 73 women treated with busulfan and cyclophosphamide, and only one retained ovarian function.
For childhood cancer survivors who have offspring, there is concern about congenital anomalies, genetic disease, or risk of cancer in the offspring. In the reports from the National Wilms Tumor Group, congenital anomalies were marginally increased in offspring of females who had received flank radiation therapy in an early analysis  and in the offspring of the partners of males who had received flank radiation therapy in a later analysis,  raising the possibility that one or both findings were spurious. In a report of 2,198 offspring of adult survivors treated for childhood cancer between 1945 and 1975 compared with 4,544 offspring of sibling controls, there were no differences in the proportion of offspring with cytogenetic syndromes, single-gene defects, or simple malformations. There was similarly no effect of type of childhood cancer treatment on the occurrence of genetic disease in the offspring. A population-based study of 2,630 live-born offspring of childhood cancer survivors versus 5,504 live-born offspring of the survivors' siblings found no differences in proportion of abnormal karyotypes or incidence of Down syndrome or Turner syndrome between survivor and sibling offspring. Survivors treated with abdominal radiation therapy and/or alkylating agents did not have an increased risk of offspring with genetic disease, compared with survivors not exposed to these agents.
In a study of 5,847 offspring of survivors of childhood cancers treated in five Scandinavian countries, in the absence of a hereditary cancer syndrome (such as hereditary retinoblastoma), there was no increased risk of cancer. Data from the five-center study also indicated no excess risk of single gene disorders, congenital malformations, or chromosomal syndromes among the offspring of former patients compared with the offspring of siblings. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Sexuality and Reproductive Issues for more information about sexuality and reproductive issues and cancer patients.)
Refer to the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers for reproductive late effects information including risk factors, evaluation, and health counseling.
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|10.||Kinsella TJ, Trivette G, Rowland J, et al.: Long-term follow-up of testicular function following radiation therapy for early-stage Hodgkin's disease. J Clin Oncol 7 (6): 718-24, 1989.|
|11.||Blatt J, Sherins RJ, Niebrugge D, et al.: Leydig cell function in boys following treatment for testicular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 3 (9): 1227-31, 1985.|
|12.||Sklar CA, Robison LL, Nesbit ME, et al.: Effects of radiation on testicular function in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol 8 (12): 1981-7, 1990.|
|13.||Ahmed SR, Shalet SM, Campbell RH, et al.: Primary gonadal damage following treatment of brain tumors in childhood. J Pediatr 103 (4): 562-5, 1983.|
|14.||Sanders JE, Buckner CD, Leonard JM, et al.: Late effects on gonadal function of cyclophosphamide, total-body irradiation, and marrow transplantation. Transplantation 36 (3): 252-5, 1983.|
|15.||Mackie EJ, Radford M, Shalet SM: Gonadal function following chemotherapy for childhood Hodgkin's disease. Med Pediatr Oncol 27 (2): 74-8, 1996.|
|16.||Shafford EA, Kingston JE, Malpas JS, et al.: Testicular function following the treatment of Hodgkin's disease in childhood. Br J Cancer 68 (6): 1199-204, 1993.|
|17.||Sherins RJ, Olweny CL, Ziegler JL: Gynecomastia and gonadal dysfunction in adolescent boys treated with combination chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. N Engl J Med 299 (1): 12-6, 1978.|
|18.||Dhabhar BN, Malhotra H, Joseph R, et al.: Gonadal function in prepubertal boys following treatment for Hodgkin's disease. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 15 (3): 306-10, 1993.|
|19.||Heikens J, Behrendt H, Adriaanse R, et al.: Irreversible gonadal damage in male survivors of pediatric Hodgkin's disease. Cancer 78 (9): 2020-4, 1996.|
|20.||da Cunha MF, Meistrich ML, Fuller LM, et al.: Recovery of spermatogenesis after treatment for Hodgkin's disease: limiting dose of MOPP chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 2 (6): 571-7, 1984.|
|21.||Brämswig JH, Heimes U, Heiermann E, et al.: The effects of different cumulative doses of chemotherapy on testicular function. Results in 75 patients treated for Hodgkin's disease during childhood or adolescence. Cancer 65 (6): 1298-302, 1990.|
|22.||Viviani S, Santoro A, Ragni G, et al.: Gonadal toxicity after combination chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. Comparative results of MOPP vs ABVD. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 21 (5): 601-5, 1985.|
|23.||Whitehead E, Shalet SM, Jones PH, et al.: Gonadal function after combination chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease in childhood. Arch Dis Child 57 (4): 287-91, 1982.|
|24.||Aubier F, Flamant F, Brauner R, et al.: Male gonadal function after chemotherapy for solid tumors in childhood. J Clin Oncol 7 (3): 304-9, 1989.|
|25.||Jaffe N, Sullivan MP, Ried H, et al.: Male reproductive function in long-term survivors of childhood cancer. Med Pediatr Oncol 16 (4): 241-7, 1988.|
|26.||Pryzant RM, Meistrich ML, Wilson G, et al.: Long-term reduction in sperm count after chemotherapy with and without radiation therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. J Clin Oncol 11 (2): 239-47, 1993.|
|27.||Meistrich ML, Wilson G, Brown BW, et al.: Impact of cyclophosphamide on long-term reduction in sperm count in men treated with combination chemotherapy for Ewing and soft tissue sarcomas. Cancer 70 (11): 2703-12, 1992.|
|28.||Kenney LB, Laufer MR, Grant FD, et al.: High risk of infertility and long term gonadal damage in males treated with high dose cyclophosphamide for sarcoma during childhood. Cancer 91 (3): 613-21, 2001.|
|29.||Garolla A, Pizzato C, Ferlin A, et al.: Progress in the development of childhood cancer therapy. Reprod Toxicol 22 (2): 126-32, 2006.|
|30.||Williams D, Crofton PM, Levitt G: Does ifosfamide affect gonadal function? Pediatr Blood Cancer 50 (2): 347-51, 2008.|
|31.||Sanders JE, Buckner CD, Amos D, et al.: Ovarian function following marrow transplantation for aplastic anemia or leukemia. J Clin Oncol 6 (5): 813-8, 1988.|
|32.||Mayer EI, Dopfer RE, Klingebiel T, et al.: Longitudinal gonadal function after bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia during childhood. Pediatr Transplant 3 (1): 38-44, 1999.|
|33.||Wallace WH, Shalet SM, Crowne EC, et al.: Ovarian failure following abdominal irradiation in childhood: natural history and prognosis. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 1 (2): 75-9, 1989.|
|34.||Scott JE: Pubertal development in children treated for nephroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 16 (2): 122-5, 1981.|
|35.||Hamre MR, Robison LL, Nesbit ME, et al.: Effects of radiation on ovarian function in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Childrens Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol 5 (11): 1759-65, 1987.|
|36.||Wallace WH, Shalet SM, Tetlow LJ, et al.: Ovarian function following the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Med Pediatr Oncol 21 (5): 333-9, 1993.|
|37.||Ortin TT, Shostak CA, Donaldson SS: Gonadal status and reproductive function following treatment for Hodgkin's disease in childhood: the Stanford experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 19 (4): 873-80, 1990.|
|38.||Papadakis V, Vlachopapadopoulou E, Van Syckle K, et al.: Gonadal function in young patients successfully treated for Hodgkin disease. Med Pediatr Oncol 32 (5): 366-72, 1999.|
|39.||Hudson MM, Greenwald C, Thompson E, et al.: Efficacy and toxicity of multiagent chemotherapy and low-dose involved-field radiotherapy in children and adolescents with Hodgkin's disease. J Clin Oncol 11 (1): 100-8, 1993.|
|40.||Green DM, Yakar D, Brecher ML, et al.: Ovarian function in adolescent women following successful treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 5 (1): 27-31, 1983.|
|41.||Siris ES, Leventhal BG, Vaitukaitis JL: Effects of childhood leukemia and chemotherapy on puberty and reproductive function in girls. N Engl J Med 294 (21): 1143-6, 1976.|
|42.||Wallace WH, Shalet SM, Crowne EC, et al.: Gonadal dysfunction due to cis-platinum. Med Pediatr Oncol 17 (5): 409-13, 1989.|
|43.||Chemaitilly W, Mertens AC, Mitby P, et al.: Acute ovarian failure in the childhood cancer survivor study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91 (5): 1723-8, 2006.|
|44.||Sklar CA, Mertens AC, Mitby P, et al.: Premature menopause in survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. J Natl Cancer Inst 98 (13): 890-6, 2006.|
|45.||Byrne J, Fears TR, Gail MH, et al.: Early menopause in long-term survivors of cancer during adolescence. Am J Obstet Gynecol 166 (3): 788-93, 1992.|
|46.||Chiarelli AM, Marrett LD, Darlington G: Early menopause and infertility in females after treatment for childhood cancer diagnosed in 1964-1988 in Ontario, Canada. Am J Epidemiol 150 (3): 245-54, 1999.|
|47.||Green DM, Kawashima T, Stovall M, et al.: Fertility of male survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Oncol 28 (2): 332-9, 2010.|
|48.||Green DM, Kawashima T, Stovall M, et al.: Fertility of female survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. J Clin Oncol 27 (16): 2677-85, 2009.|
|49.||Green DM, Nolan VG, Kawashima T, et al.: Decreased fertility among female childhood cancer survivors who received 22-27 Gy hypothalamic/pituitary irradiation: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Fertil Steril 95 (6): 1922-7, 1927.e1, 2011.|
|50.||Critchley HO, Wallace WH, Shalet SM, et al.: Abdominal irradiation in childhood; the potential for pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 99 (5): 392-4, 1992.|
|51.||Byrne J, Mulvihill JJ, Connelly RR, et al.: Reproductive problems and birth defects in survivors of Wilms' tumor and their relatives. Med Pediatr Oncol 16 (4): 233-40, 1988.|
|52.||Winther JF, Boice JD Jr, Svendsen AL, et al.: Spontaneous abortion in a Danish population-based cohort of childhood cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol 26 (26): 4340-6, 2008.|
|53.||Cvancarova M, Samuelsen SO, Magelssen H, et al.: Reproduction rates after cancer treatment: experience from the Norwegian radium hospital. J Clin Oncol 27 (3): 334-43, 2009.|
|54.||Magelssen H, Melve KK, Skjaerven R, et al.: Parenthood probability and pregnancy outcome in patients with a cancer diagnosis during adolescence and young adulthood. Hum Reprod 23 (1): 178-86, 2008.|
|55.||Green DM, Lange JM, Peabody EM, et al.: Pregnancy outcome after treatment for Wilms tumor: a report from the national Wilms tumor long-term follow-up study. J Clin Oncol 28 (17): 2824-30, 2010.|
|56.||Hawkins MM, Smith RA: Pregnancy outcomes in childhood cancer survivors: probable effects of abdominal irradiation. Int J Cancer 43 (3): 399-402, 1989.|
|57.||Chow EJ, Kamineni A, Daling JR, et al.: Reproductive outcomes in male childhood cancer survivors: a linked cancer-birth registry analysis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 163 (10): 887-94, 2009.|
|58.||Mueller BA, Chow EJ, Kamineni A, et al.: Pregnancy outcomes in female childhood and adolescent cancer survivors: a linked cancer-birth registry analysis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 163 (10): 879-86, 2009.|
|59.||Reulen RC, Zeegers MP, Wallace WH, et al.: Pregnancy outcomes among adult survivors of childhood cancer in the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18 (8): 2239-47, 2009.|
|60.||Agarwa A: Semen banking in patients with cancer: 20-year experience. Int J Androl 23 (Suppl 2): 16-9, 2000.|
|61.||Hallak J, Hendin BN, Thomas AJ Jr, et al.: Investigation of fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved spermatozoa from patients with cancer. J Urol 159 (4): 1217-20, 1998.|
|62.||Khalifa E, Oehninger S, Acosta AA, et al.: Successful fertilization and pregnancy outcome in in-vitro fertilization using cryopreserved/thawed spermatozoa from patients with malignant diseases. Hum Reprod 7 (1): 105-8, 1992.|
|63.||Müller J, Sønksen J, Sommer P, et al.: Cryopreservation of semen from pubertal boys with cancer. Med Pediatr Oncol 34 (3): 191-4, 2000.|
|64.||Hsiao W, Stahl PJ, Osterberg EC, et al.: Successful treatment of postchemotherapy azoospermia with microsurgical testicular sperm extraction: the Weill Cornell experience. J Clin Oncol 29 (12): 1607-11, 2011.|
|65.||Teinturier C, Hartmann O, Valteau-Couanet D, et al.: Ovarian function after autologous bone marrow transplantation in childhood: high-dose busulfan is a major cause of ovarian failure. Bone Marrow Transplant 22 (10): 989-94, 1998.|
|66.||Sanders JE, Hawley J, Levy W, et al.: Pregnancies following high-dose cyclophosphamide with or without high-dose busulfan or total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. Blood 87 (7): 3045-52, 1996.|
|67.||Green DM, Peabody EM, Nan B, et al.: Pregnancy outcome after treatment for Wilms tumor: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. J Clin Oncol 20 (10): 2506-13, 2002.|
|68.||Winther JF, Boice JD Jr, Mulvihill JJ, et al.: Chromosomal abnormalities among offspring of childhood-cancer survivors in Denmark: a population-based study. Am J Hum Genet 74 (6): 1282-5, 2004.|
|69.||Byrne J, Rasmussen SA, Steinhorn SC, et al.: Genetic disease in offspring of long-term survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. Am J Hum Genet 62 (1): 45-52, 1998.|
|70.||Sankila R, Olsen JH, Anderson H, et al.: Risk of cancer among offspring of childhood-cancer survivors. Association of the Nordic Cancer Registries and the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology. N Engl J Med 338 (19): 1339-44, 1998.|
Acute and chronic pulmonary complications reported after treatment for pediatric malignancies include radiation pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and spontaneous pneumothorax. These sequelae are uncommon following contemporary therapy and most often result in subclinical injury that is detected only by imaging or formal pulmonary function testing. Chemotherapy agents with potential pulmonary toxicity commonly used in the treatment of pediatric malignancies include bleomycin, busulfan, and the nitrosoureas (carmustine and lomustine). These agents induce lung damage on their own or potentiate the damaging effects of radiation to the lung. Thus, the potential for acute or chronic pulmonary sequelae must be considered in the context of the specific chemotherapeutic agents and the radiation dose administered, the volume of lung irradiated, and the fractional radiation therapy doses.
Acute pneumonitis manifested by fever, congestion, cough, and dyspnea can follow radiation therapy alone at doses greater than 40 Gy to focal lung volumes, or after lower doses when combined with dactinomycin or anthracyclines. Fatal pneumonitis is possible after radiation therapy alone at doses to the whole lung greater than 20 Gy, but is possible after lower doses when combined with chemotherapy. Infection, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the setting of bone marrow transplant, and pre-existing pulmonary compromise (e.g., asthma) all may influence this risk. Changes in lung function have been reported in children treated with whole-lung radiation therapy for metastatic Wilms tumor. A dose of 12 Gy to 14 Gy reduced total lung capacity and vital capacity to about 70% of predicted values, and even lower if the patient had undergone thoracotomy. Fractionation of dose decreases this risk.[1,2] Administration of bleomycin alone can produce pulmonary toxicity and, when combined with radiation therapy, can heighten radiation reactions. Chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin, dactinomycin, and busulfan are radiomimetic agents and can reactivate latent radiation damage.[1,2,3]
The development of bleomycin-associated pulmonary fibrosis with permanent restrictive disease is dose dependent, usually occurring at doses greater than 200 U/m2 to 400 U/m2, higher than those used in treatment protocols for pediatric malignancies.[3,4,5] More current pediatric regimens for Hodgkin lymphoma using radiation therapy and ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) have shown a significant incidence of asymptomatic pulmonary dysfunction after treatment, which appears to improve with time.[6,7,8] However, grade 3 and 4 pulmonary toxicity has been reported in 9% of children receiving 12 cycles of ABVD followed by 21 Gy of radiation. In addition, ABVD-related pulmonary toxicity may result from fibrosis induced by bleomycin or "radiation recall" pneumonitis related to administration of doxorubicin. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease has been observed rarely and has been attributed to bleomycin chemotherapy.
Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) are at increased risk of pulmonary toxicity, related to (1) preexisting pulmonary dysfunction (e.g., asthma, pretransplant therapy); (2) the preparative regimen that may include cyclophosphamide, busulfan, and carmustine; (3) total-body irradiation; and (4) the presence of GVHD.[10,11,12,13,14,15] Although most survivors of transplant are not clinically compromised, restrictive lung disease may occur. Obstructive disease is less common, as is late onset pulmonary syndrome, which includes the spectrum of restrictive and obstructive disease. Bronchiolitis obliterans with or without organizing pneumonia, diffuse alveolar damage, and interstitial pneumonia may occur as a component of this syndrome, generally between 6 and 12 months posttransplant. Cough, dyspnea, or wheezing may occur with either normal chest x-ray or diffuse/patchy infiltrates; however, most patients are symptom free.[12,16,17,18]
Additional factors contributing to chronic pulmonary toxicity include superimposed infection, underlying pneumonopathy (e.g., asthma), cigarette use, respiratory toxicity, chronic GVHD, and the effects of chronic pulmonary involvement by tumor or reaction to tumor. Lung lobectomy during childhood appears to have no significant impact on long-term pulmonary function, but the long-term effect of lung surgery for children with cancer is not well defined.
The true prevalence or incidence of pulmonary dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors is not clear. For children treated with HSCT, there is significant clinical disease. No large cohort studies have been performed with clinical evaluations coupled with functional and quality of life assessments. An analysis of self-reported pulmonary complications of 12,390 survivors of common childhood malignancies has been reported by the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. This cohort includes children treated with both conventional and myeloablative therapies. Compared with siblings, survivors had an increased relative risk (RR) of lung fibrosis, recurrent pneumonia, chronic cough, pleurisy, use of supplemental oxygen therapy, abnormal chest wall, exercise-induced shortness of breath, and bronchitis, with RRs ranging from 1.2 to 13.0 (highest for lung fibrosis and lowest for bronchitis). The 25-year cumulative incidence of lung fibrosis was 5% for those who received chest radiation therapy and less than 1% for those who received pulmonary toxic chemotherapy. With changes in the doses of radiation therapy employed since the late 1980s, the incidence of these abnormalities is likely to decrease.
|Predisposing Therapy||Pulmonary Effects||Health Screening/Interventions|
|DLCO = diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; GVHD = graft-versus-host disease.|
|Busulfan; carmustine (BCNU)/lomustine (CCNU); bleomycin; radiation impacting lungs; surgery impacting pulmonary function (lobectomy, metastasectomy, wedge resection)||Subclinical pulmonary dysfunction; interstitial pneumonitis; pulmonary fibrosis; restrictive lung disease; obstructive lung disease||History: cough, shortness of breath, dyspnea on exertion, wheezing|
|Pulmonary function tests (including DLCO and spirometry)|
|Counsel regarding tobacco avoidance/smoking cessation|
|In patients with abnormal pulmonary function tests and/or chest x-ray, consider repeat evaluation prior to general anesthesia|
|Pulmonary consultation for patients with symptomatic pulmonary dysfunction|
|Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations|
|Hematopoietic cell transplantation with any history of chronic GVHD||Pulmonary toxicity (bronchiolitis obliterans, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis)||History: cough, shortness of breath, dyspnea on exertion, wheezing|
|Pulmonary function tests (including DLCO and spirometry)|
|Counsel regarding tobacco avoidance/smoking cessation|
|In patients with abnormal pulmonary function tests and/or chest x-ray, consider repeat evaluation prior to general anesthesia|
|Pulmonary consultation for patients with symptomatic pulmonary dysfunction|
|Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations|
Refer to the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers for respiratory late effects information including risk factors, evaluation, and health counseling.
|1.||McDonald S, Rubin P, Maasilta P: Response of normal lung to irradiation. Tolerance doses/tolerance volumes in pulmonary radiation syndromes. Front Radiat Ther Oncol 23: 255-76; discussion 299-301, 1989.|
|2.||McDonald S, Rubin P, Phillips TL, et al.: Injury to the lung from cancer therapy: clinical syndromes, measurable endpoints, and potential scoring systems. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 31 (5): 1187-203, 1995.|
|3.||Kreisman H, Wolkove N: Pulmonary toxicity of antineoplastic therapy. Semin Oncol 19 (5): 508-20, 1992.|
|4.||Bossi G, Cerveri I, Volpini E, et al.: Long-term pulmonary sequelae after treatment of childhood Hodgkin's disease. Ann Oncol 8 (Suppl 1): 19-24, 1997.|
|5.||Fryer CJ, Hutchinson RJ, Krailo M, et al.: Efficacy and toxicity of 12 courses of ABVD chemotherapy followed by low-dose regional radiation in advanced Hodgkin's disease in children: a report from the Children's Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol 8 (12): 1971-80, 1990.|
|6.||Hudson MM, Greenwald C, Thompson E, et al.: Efficacy and toxicity of multiagent chemotherapy and low-dose involved-field radiotherapy in children and adolescents with Hodgkin's disease. J Clin Oncol 11 (1): 100-8, 1993.|
|7.||Hunger SP, Link MP, Donaldson SS: ABVD/MOPP and low-dose involved-field radiotherapy in pediatric Hodgkin's disease: the Stanford experience. J Clin Oncol 12 (10): 2160-6, 1994.|
|8.||Marina NM, Greenwald CA, Fairclough DL, et al.: Serial pulmonary function studies in children treated for newly diagnosed Hodgkin's disease with mantle radiotherapy plus cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and procarbazine alternating with cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine. Cancer 75 (7): 1706-11, 1995.|
|9.||Polliack A: Late therapy-induced cardiac and pulmonary complications in cured patients with Hodgkin's disease treated with conventional combination chemo-radiotherapy. Leuk Lymphoma 15 (Suppl 1): 7-10, 1995.|
|10.||Cerveri I, Fulgoni P, Giorgiani G, et al.: Lung function abnormalities after bone marrow transplantation in children: has the trend recently changed? Chest 120 (6): 1900-6, 2001.|
|11.||Kaplan EB, Wodell RA, Wilmott RW, et al.: Late effects of bone marrow transplantation on pulmonary function in children. Bone Marrow Transplant 14 (4): 613-21, 1994.|
|12.||Leiper AD: Non-endocrine late complications of bone marrow transplantation in childhood: part II. Br J Haematol 118 (1): 23-43, 2002.|
|13.||Marras TK, Chan CK, Lipton JH, et al.: Long-term pulmonary function abnormalities and survival after allogeneic marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 33 (5): 509-17, 2004.|
|14.||Nenadov Beck M, Meresse V, Hartmann O, et al.: Long-term pulmonary sequelae after autologous bone marrow transplantation in children without total body irradiation. Bone Marrow Transplant 16 (6): 771-5, 1995.|
|15.||Nysom K, Holm K, Hesse B, et al.: Lung function after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for leukaemia or lymphoma. Arch Dis Child 74 (5): 432-6, 1996.|
|16.||Schultz KR, Green GJ, Wensley D, et al.: Obstructive lung disease in children after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Blood 84 (9): 3212-20, 1994.|
|17.||Uderzo C, Pillon M, Corti P, et al.: Impact of cumulative anthracycline dose, preparative regimen and chronic graft-versus-host disease on pulmonary and cardiac function in children 5 years after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a prospective evaluation on behalf of the EBMT Pediatric Diseases and Late Effects Working Parties. Bone Marrow Transplant 39 (11): 667-75, 2007.|
|18.||Yoshihara S, Yanik G, Cooke KR, et al.: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), and other late-onset noninfectious pulmonary complications following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 13 (7): 749-59, 2007.|
|19.||Kreisel D, Krupnick AS, Huddleston CB: Outcomes and late complications after pulmonary resections in the pediatric population. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 16 (3): 215-9, 2004.|
|20.||Mertens AC, Yasui Y, Liu Y, et al.: Pulmonary complications in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer 95 (11): 2431-41, 2002.|
Children treated for malignancies may be at risk for early- or delayed-onset hearing loss that can affect learning, communication, school performance, social interaction, and overall quality of life. Hearing loss as a late effect of therapy can occur after exposure to platinum compounds (cisplatin and carboplatin) and cranial irradiation. Children are more susceptible to ototoxicity from platinum agents than adults.[1,2] Risk factors associated with hearing loss with platinum agents include the following:
For cisplatin, the risk of significant hearing loss involving the speech frequencies (500–2000 Hz) usually occurs with cumulative doses that exceed 400 mg/m2 in pediatric patients.[1,3] Ototoxicity after platinum chemotherapy can present or worsen years after completion of therapy. In 59 patients who had received cisplatin, 51% of them developed late-onset hearing loss (occurring at least 6 months after the last dose of cisplatin). Radiation to the posterior fossa and the use of hearing aids were associated with late-onset hearing loss.[4,5] Carboplatin used in conventional (nonmyeloablative) dosing is typically not ototoxic. A single study observed ototoxicity after the use of non-stem cell transplant dosing of carboplatin for retinoblastoma, in that 8 children out of 175 developed hearing loss. For seven of the eight children, the onset of the ototoxicity was delayed a median of 3.7 years. With myeloablative dosing, carboplatin may cause significant ototoxicity. For carboplatin, ototoxicity has been reported to occur at cumulative doses exceeding 400 mg/m2.
Cranial radiation therapy, when used as a single modality, results in ototoxicity when cochlear dosage exceeds 32 Gy. Young patient age and presence of a brain tumor and/or hydrocephalus can increase susceptibility to hearing loss. The onset of radiation-associated hearing loss may be gradual, manifesting months to years after exposure. When used concomitantly with cisplatin, radiation therapy can substantially exacerbate the hearing loss associated with platinum chemotherapy.[9,10,11,12] In a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), 5-year survivors were at increased risk of problems with hearing sounds (relative risk [RR] = 2.3), tinnitus (RR = 1.7), hearing loss requiring an aid (RR = 4.4), and hearing loss in one or both ears not corrected by a hearing aid (RR = 5.2) when compared with siblings. Temporal lobe (>30 Gy) and posterior fossa radiation (>50 Gy but also 30–49.9 Gy) was associated with these outcomes. Exposure to platinum was associated with an increased risk of problems with hearing sounds (RR = 2.1), tinnitus (RR = 2.8), and hearing loss requiring an aid (RR = 4.1).
|Predisposing Therapy||Potential Auditory Effects||Health Screening/Interventions|
|FM = frequency modulated.|
|Platinum agents (cisplatin, carboplatin); radiation impacting the ear||Ototoxicity; sensorineural hearing loss; tinnitus; vertigo; dehydrated ceruminosis; conductive hearing loss||History: hearing difficulties, tinnitus, vertigo|
|Amplification in patients with progressive hearing loss|
|Speech and language therapy for children with hearing loss|
|Otolaryngology consultation in patients with chronic infection, cerumen impaction, or other anatomical problems exacerbating or contributing to hearing loss|
|Educational accommodations (e.g., preferential classroom seating, FM amplification system, etc.)|
Orbital and Optic
Orbital complications are common following radiation therapy for retinoblastoma, childhood head and neck sarcomas, and CNS tumors, and as part of total-body irradiation (TBI).
For survivors of retinoblastoma, a small orbital volume may result from either enucleation or radiation therapy. Age younger than 1 year may increase risk, but this is not consistent across studies.[14,15] Progress has been made in the management of retinoblastoma with better enucleation implants, intravenous chemoreduction, and intra-arterial chemotherapy in addition to thermotherapy, cryotherapy, and plaque radiation. Longer follow-up is needed to assess the impact on vision in patients undergoing these treatment modalities.[14,16,17,18] Previously, tumors located near the macula and fovea were associated with an increased risk of complications leading to visual loss, although treatment of these tumors with foveal laser ablation has shown promise in preserving vision.[18,19,20,21,22,23,24] (Refer to the PDQ summary on Retinoblastoma Treatment for more information on the treatment of retinoblastoma.)
Survivors of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma are at risk of dry eye, cataract, orbital hypoplasia, ptosis, retinopathy, keratoconjunctivitis, optic neuropathy, lid epithelioma, and impairment of vision following radiation therapy doses of 30 Gy to 65 Gy. The higher dose ranges (>50 Gy) are associated with lid epitheliomas, keratoconjunctivitis, lacrimal duct atrophy, and severe dry eye. Retinitis and optic neuropathy may also result from doses of 50 Gy to 65 Gy and even at lower total doses if the individual fraction size is greater than 2 Gy. Cataracts are reported following lower doses of 10 Gy to 18 Gy.[26,27,28,29,30,31] (Refer to the PDQ summary on Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma Treatment for more information on the treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma in children.)
Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for ocular late effects related to both glucocorticoid and radiation exposure to the eye. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) reported that survivors 5 or more years from diagnosis are at increased risk for cataracts, glaucoma, legal blindness, double vision, and dry eye when compared with siblings. The dose of radiation to the eye is significantly associated with risk of cataracts, legal blindness, double vision, and dry eye, in a dose-dependent manner. Risk of cataracts was associated with a radiation dose of 3,000 cGy or more to the posterior fossa, temporal lobe and exposure to prednisone. The cumulative incidence of cataracts, double vision, dry eye, and legal blindness continued to increase up to 20 years after diagnosis for those who received more than 500 cGy to the eye.
Ocular complications such as cataracts and dry-eye syndrome are common after stem cell transplant in childhood. Compared with patients treated with busulfan or other chemotherapy, patients treated with single-dose or fractionated TBI are at increased risk of cataracts. Risk ranges from approximately 10% to 60% at 10 years posttreatment, depending on the total dose and fractionation, with a shorter latency period and more severe cataracts noted after single fraction and higher dose or dose-rate TBI.[33,34,35,36] Patients receiving TBI with biologically effective doses of less than 40 Gy have a less than 10% chance of developing severe cataracts. Corticosteroids and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) may further increase risk.[33,37] Epithelial superficial keratopathy has been shown to be more common if the patient was exposed to repeated high trough levels of cyclosporine A.
|Predisposing Therapy||Ocular/Vision Effects||Health Screening/Interventions|
|GVHD = graft-versus-host disease.|
|Busulfan; corticosteroids; radiation impacting the eye||Cataracts||History: decreased acuity, halos, diplopia|
|Eye exam: visual acuity, funduscopy|
|Radiation impacting the eye including radioiodine (I-131)||Ocular toxicity (orbital hypoplasia, lacrimal duct atrophy, xerophthalmia [keratoconjunctivitis sicca], keratitis, telangiectasias, retinopathy, optic chiasm neuropathy, enophthalmos, chronic painful eye, maculopathy, papillopathy, glaucoma)||History: visual changes (decreased acuity, halos, diplopia), dry eye, persistent eye irritation, excessive tearing, light sensitivity, poor night vision, painful eye|
|Eye exam: visual acuity, funduscopy|
|Hematopoietic cell transplantation with any history of chronic GVHD||Xerophthalmia (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)||History: dry eye (burning, itching, foreign body sensation, inflammation)|
|Eye exam: visual acuity, funduscopy|
|Enucleation||Impaired cosmesis; poor prosthetic fit; orbital hypoplasia||Ocular prosthetic evaluation|
Refer to the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers for information on the late effects of special senses including risk factors, evaluation, and health counseling.
|1.||McHaney VA, Thibadoux G, Hayes FA, et al.: Hearing loss in children receiving cisplatin chemotherapy. J Pediatr 102 (2): 314-7, 1983.|
|2.||Grewal S, Merchant T, Reymond R, et al.: Auditory late effects of childhood cancer therapy: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatrics 125 (4): e938-50, 2010.|
|3.||Kushner BH, Budnick A, Kramer K, et al.: Ototoxicity from high-dose use of platinum compounds in patients with neuroblastoma. Cancer 107 (2): 417-22, 2006.|
|4.||Kolinsky DC, Hayashi SS, Karzon R, et al.: Late onset hearing loss: a significant complication of cancer survivors treated with Cisplatin containing chemotherapy regimens. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 32 (2): 119-23, 2010.|
|5.||Al-Khatib T, Cohen N, Carret AS, et al.: Cisplatinum ototoxicity in children, long-term follow up. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 74 (8): 913-9, 2010.|
|6.||Fouladi M, Gururangan S, Moghrabi A, et al.: Carboplatin-based primary chemotherapy for infants and young children with CNS tumors. Cancer 115 (14): 3243-53, 2009.|
|7.||Jehanne M, Lumbroso-Le Rouic L, Savignoni A, et al.: Analysis of ototoxicity in young children receiving carboplatin in the context of conservative management of unilateral or bilateral retinoblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer 52 (5): 637-43, 2009.|
|8.||Bertolini P, Lassalle M, Mercier G, et al.: Platinum compound-related ototoxicity in children: long-term follow-up reveals continuous worsening of hearing loss. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 26 (10): 649-55, 2004.|
|9.||Cheuk DK, Billups CA, Martin MG, et al.: Prognostic factors and long-term outcomes of childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer 117 (1): 197-206, 2011.|
|10.||Hua C, Bass JK, Khan R, et al.: Hearing loss after radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumors: effect of cochlear dose. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 72 (3): 892-9, 2008.|
|11.||Merchant TE, Hua CH, Shukla H, et al.: Proton versus photon radiotherapy for common pediatric brain tumors: comparison of models of dose characteristics and their relationship to cognitive function. Pediatr Blood Cancer 51 (1): 110-7, 2008.|
|12.||Paulino AC, Lobo M, Teh BS, et al.: Ototoxicity after intensity-modulated radiation therapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy in children with medulloblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 78 (5): 1445-50, 2010.|
|13.||Whelan K, Stratton K, Kawashima T, et al.: Auditory complications in childhood cancer survivors: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57 (1): 126-34, 2011.|
|14.||Kaste SC, Chen G, Fontanesi J, et al.: Orbital development in long-term survivors of retinoblastoma. J Clin Oncol 15 (3): 1183-9, 1997.|
|15.||Peylan-Ramu N, Bin-Nun A, Skleir-Levy M, et al.: Orbital growth retardation in retinoblastoma survivors: work in progress. Med Pediatr Oncol 37 (5): 465-70, 2001.|
|16.||Shields CL, Shields JA: Retinoblastoma management: advances in enucleation, intravenous chemoreduction, and intra-arterial chemotherapy. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 21 (3): 203-12, 2010.|
|17.||Abramson DH, Dunkel IJ, Brodie SE, et al.: Superselective ophthalmic artery chemotherapy as primary treatment for retinoblastoma (chemosurgery). Ophthalmology 117 (8): 1623-9, 2010.|
|18.||Shields CL, Shields JA: Recent developments in the management of retinoblastoma. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 36 (1): 8-18; quiz 35-6, 1999 Jan-Feb.|
|19.||Shields CL, Shields JA, Cater J, et al.: Plaque radiotherapy for retinoblastoma: long-term tumor control and treatment complications in 208 tumors. Ophthalmology 108 (11): 2116-21, 2001.|
|20.||Weiss AH, Karr DJ, Kalina RE, et al.: Visual outcomes of macular retinoblastoma after external beam radiation therapy. Ophthalmology 101 (7): 1244-9, 1994.|
|21.||Buckley EG, Heath H: Visual acuity after successful treatment of large macular retinoblastoma. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 29 (2): 103-6, 1992 Mar-Apr.|
|22.||Fontanesi J, Pratt CB, Kun LE, et al.: Treatment outcome and dose-response relationship in infants younger than 1 year treated for retinoblastoma with primary irradiation. Med Pediatr Oncol 26 (5): 297-304, 1996.|
|23.||Shields JA, Shields CL: Pediatric ocular and periocular tumors. Pediatr Ann 30 (8): 491-501, 2001.|
|24.||Schefler AC, Cicciarelli N, Feuer W, et al.: Macular retinoblastoma: evaluation of tumor control, local complications, and visual outcomes for eyes treated with chemotherapy and repetitive foveal laser ablation. Ophthalmology 114 (1): 162-9, 2007.|
|25.||Kline LB, Kim JY, Ceballos R: Radiation optic neuropathy. Ophthalmology 92 (8): 1118-26, 1985.|
|26.||Raney RB, Asmar L, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, et al.: Late complications of therapy in 213 children with localized, nonorbital soft-tissue sarcoma of the head and neck: A descriptive report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Studies (IRS)-II and - III. IRS Group of the Children's Cancer Group and the Pediatric Oncology Group. Med Pediatr Oncol 33 (4): 362-71, 1999.|
|27.||Paulino AC, Simon JH, Zhen W, et al.: Long-term effects in children treated with radiotherapy for head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48 (5): 1489-95, 2000.|
|28.||Parsons JT, Bova FJ, Mendenhall WM, et al.: Response of the normal eye to high dose radiotherapy. Oncology (Huntingt) 10 (6): 837-47; discussion 847-8, 851-2, 1996.|
|29.||Paulino AC: Role of radiation therapy in parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer Invest 17 (3): 223-30, 1999.|
|30.||Oberlin O, Rey A, Anderson J, et al.: Treatment of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma: survival and late effects of treatment--results of an international workshop. J Clin Oncol 19 (1): 197-204, 2001.|
|31.||Raney RB, Anderson JR, Kollath J, et al.: Late effects of therapy in 94 patients with localized rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit: Report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS)-III, 1984-1991. Med Pediatr Oncol 34 (6): 413-20, 2000.|
|32.||Whelan KF, Stratton K, Kawashima T, et al.: Ocular late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. Pediatr Blood Cancer 54 (1): 103-9, 2010.|
|33.||Ferry C, Gemayel G, Rocha V, et al.: Long-term outcomes after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for children with hematological malignancies. Bone Marrow Transplant 40 (3): 219-24, 2007.|
|34.||Fahnehjelm KT, Törnquist AL, Olsson M, et al.: Visual outcome and cataract development after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in children. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 85 (7): 724-33, 2007.|
|35.||Gurney JG, Ness KK, Rosenthal J, et al.: Visual, auditory, sensory, and motor impairments in long-term survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation performed in childhood: results from the Bone Marrow Transplant Survivor study. Cancer 106 (6): 1402-8, 2006.|
|36.||Kal HB, VAN Kempen-Harteveld ML: Induction of severe cataract and late renal dysfunction following total body irradiation: dose-effect relationships. Anticancer Res 29 (8): 3305-9, 2009.|
|37.||Holmström G, Borgström B, Calissendorff B: Cataract in children after bone marrow transplantation: relation to conditioning regimen. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 80 (2): 211-5, 2002.|
|38.||Fahnehjelm KT, Törnquist AL, Winiarski J: Dry-eye syndrome after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in children. Acta Ophthalmol 86 (3): 253-8, 2008.|
Cancer treatments predisposing to late renal injury and hypertension include specific chemotherapeutic drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin, and ifosfamide), renal radiation therapy, and nephrectomy. Cisplatin can cause glomerular and tubular damage resulting in a diminished glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and electrolyte wasting (particularly magnesium, calcium, and potassium). Approximately 50% of patients may experience long-lasting hypomagnesemia. The use of ifosfamide concurrently with cisplatin increases the risk of renal injury. Carboplatin is a cisplatin analog and is less nephrotoxic than cisplatin. Although in a prospective longitudinal single-center cohort study of children followed for more than 10 years after completion of therapy with cisplatin or carboplatin, older age at treatment was found to be the major risk factor for nephrotoxicity, especially for patients receiving carboplatin, while cisplatin dose schedule and cumulative carboplatin dose were also important predictors of toxicity. Platinum nephrotoxicity did not change significantly over 10 years. The combination of carboplatin/ifosfamide may be associated with more renal damage than the combination of cisplatin/ifosfamide.[3,4,5] As with ototoxicity, however, additional follow-up in larger numbers of survivors treated with carboplatin must be evaluated before potential renal toxicity can be better defined.
Ifosfamide can also cause glomerular and tubular toxicity, with renal tubular acidosis, and Fanconi syndrome, a proximal tubular defect characterized by impairment of resorption of glucose, amino acids, phosphate, and bicarbonate. Ifosfamide doses greater than 60 g/m2 to 100 g/m2, age younger than 5 years at time of treatment, and combination with cisplatin and carboplatin increase the risk of ifosfamide-associated renal tubular toxicity.[6,7,8] Abnormalities in glomerular filtration are less common, and when found, are usually not clinically significant. More common are abnormalities with proximal tubular function greater than distal tubular function, though the prevalence of these findings is uncertain and further study of larger cohorts with longer follow-up is required.[2,9,10,11,12] A French study evaluating the incidence of late renal toxicity after ifosfamide reported normal tubular function in 90% of pediatric cancer survivors (median follow-up of 10 years); 79% of the cancer survivors had normal GFR, and all had normal serum bicarbonate and calcium. Hypomagnesemia and hypophosphatemia were seen in 1% of cancer survivors. Glycosuria was detected in 37% of cancer survivors but was mild in 95% of cases. Proteinuria was observed in 12% of cancer survivors. In multivariate analysis, ifosfamide dose and interval from therapy were predictors of tubulopathy, and older age at diagnosis and interval from therapy were predictors of abnormal GFR.
High-dose methotrexate (1,000–33,000 mg/m2) has been reported to cause acute renal dysfunction in 0% to 12.4% of patients. This has resulted in delayed elimination of the drug, but long-term renal sequelae have not been described.
Irradiation to the kidney can result in radiation nephritis or nephropathy after a latent period of 3 to 12 months. Doses greater than 20 Gy can result in significant nephropathy. In a report from the German Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects after Radiation in Childhood and Adolescence (RISK consortium), 126 patients who underwent radiation therapy to parts of the kidneys for various cancers were evaluated. All patients also received potentially nephrotoxic chemotherapy. Whole kidney volumes exposed to greater than 20 Gy (P = .031) or 30 Gy (P = .003) of radiation were associated with a greater risk for mild degrees of nephrotoxicity. The effect of radiation therapy on the kidney has best been examined in survivors of pediatric Wilms tumor. Generally, studies have shown that the risk of renal insufficiency is higher among children receiving higher doses of radiation.[16,17,18] A correlation between functional impairment and the renal radiation dose was reported in a study of 100 children treated for Wilms tumor. The incidence of impaired creatinine clearance was significantly higher for children receiving more than 12 Gy to the remaining kidney, and all cases of overt renal failure occurred after more than 23 Gy. In a cohort of Wilms tumor survivors evaluated 5 years after receiving abdominal radiation, the prevalence of renal insufficiency, as defined by hypertension, was approximately 7%.
Data from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group and the U.S. Renal Data System indicate that the 20-year cumulative incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children with unilateral Wilms tumor and Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS) is 74%, 36% for those with WAGR (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, mental retardation) syndrome, 7% for male patients with genitourinary anomalies and 0.6% for 5,347 patients with none of these conditions. For patients with bilateral Wilms tumors, the incidence of ESRD is 50% for DDS, 90% for WAGR, 25% for genitourinary anomaly, and 12% for patients for all others.[21,22] ESRD in patients with WAGR and genitourinary anomalies tended to occur relatively late, and often during or after adolescence.
Treatment for Wilms tumor without flank or abdominal radiation therapy was not associated with significant nephrotoxicity in a study of 40 Wilms tumor survivors treated in England.
In the setting of hematopoietic cell transplantation, fewer than 15% of children will develop chronic renal insufficiency or hypertension; the risk is related to the nephrotoxic agents used and the cumulative total-body irradiation dose, fractionation scheme, and interfraction interval. More specifically, the radiation-associated risk rises when the total dose exceeds 12 Gy, the individual fraction size is greater than 2 Gy, or the interval-fraction is less than 4 to 6 hours.[23,24,25,26]
Childhood cancer survivors treated with pelvic or central nervous system surgery, alkylator-containing chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide, or pelvic radiation therapy may experience urinary bladder late effects including hemorrhagic cystitis, bladder fibrosis, neurogenic/dysfunctional bladder, and bladder cancer.
|Predisposing Therapy||Renal/Genitourinary Effects||Health Screening|
|BUN = blood urea nitrogen; NSAIDs = nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; RBC/HFP = red blood cells per high-field power (microscopic exam).|
|Cyclophosphamide/Ifosfamide; radiation impacting bladder/urinary tract||Bladder toxicity (hemorrhagic cystitis, bladder fibrosis, dysfunctional voiding, vesicoureteral reflux, hydronephrosis)||History: hematuria, urinary urgency/frequency, urinary incontinence/retention, dysuria, nocturia, abnormal urinary stream|
|Urine culture, spot urine calcium/creatinine ratio, and ultrasound of kidneys and bladder for patients with microscopic hematuria (defined as ≥5 RBC/HFP on at least 2 occasions)|
|Nephrology or urology referral for patients with culture-negative microscopic hematuria AND abnormal ultrasound and/or abnormal calcium/creatinine ratio|
|Urology referral for patients with culture negative macroscopic hematuria|
|Cisplatin/carboplatin; ifosfamide||Renal toxicity (glomerular injury, tubular injury [renal tubular acidosis], Fanconi syndrome, hypophosphatemic rickets)||Blood pressure|
|BUN, Creatinine, Na, K, Cl, CO2, Ca, Mg, PO4 levels|
|Electrolyte supplements for patients with persistent electrolyte wasting|
|Nephrology consultation for patients with hypertension, proteinuria, or progressive renal insufficiency|
|Methotrexate; radiation impacting kidneys/urinary tract||Renal toxicity (renal insufficiency, hypertension)||Blood pressure|
|BUN, Creatinine, Na, K, Cl, CO2, Ca, Mg, PO4 levels|
|Nephrology consultation for patients with hypertension, proteinuria, or progressive renal insufficiency|
|Nephrectomy||Renal toxicity (proteinuria, hyperfiltration, renal insufficiency)||Blood pressure|
|BUN, Creatinine, Na, K, Cl, CO2, Ca, Mg, PO4 levels|
|Discuss contact sports, bicycle safety (e.g., avoiding handlebar injuries), and proper use of seatbelts (i.e., wearing lapbelts around hips, not waist)|
|Counsel to use NSAIDs with caution|
|Nephrology consultation for patients with hypertension, proteinuria, or progressive renal insufficiency|
|Nephrectomy; pelvic surgery; cystectomy||Hydrocele||Testicular exam|
|Cystectomy||Cystectomy-related complications (chronic urinary tract infections, renal dysfunction, vesicoureteral reflux, hydronephrosis, reservoir calculi, spontaneous neobladder perforation, vitamin B12 /folate/carotene deficiency [patients with ileal enterocystoplasty only])||Urology evaluation|
|Vitamin B12 level|
|Pelvic surgery; cystectomy||Urinary incontinence; urinary tract obstruction||History: hematuria, urinary urgency/frequency, urinary incontinence/retention, dysuria, nocturia, abnormal urinary stream|
|Counsel regarding adequate fluid intake, regular voiding, seeking medical attention for symptoms of voiding dysfunction or urinary tract infection, compliance with recommended bladder catheterization regimen|
|Urologic consultation for patients with dysfunctional voiding or recurrent urinary tract infections|
Refer to the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers for urinary late effects information including risk factors, evaluation, and health counseling.
|1.||Jones DP, Spunt SL, Green D, et al.: Renal late effects in patients treated for cancer in childhood: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 51 (6): 724-31, 2008.|
|2.||Loebstein R, Koren G: Ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity in children: critical review of predictive risk factors. Pediatrics 101 (6): E8, 1998.|
|3.||Skinner R, Parry A, Price L, et al.: Persistent nephrotoxicity during 10-year follow-up after cisplatin or carboplatin treatment in childhood: relevance of age and dose as risk factors. Eur J Cancer 45 (18): 3213-9, 2009.|
|4.||Marina NM, Poquette CA, Cain AM, et al.: Comparative renal tubular toxicity of chemotherapy regimens including ifosfamide in patients with newly diagnosed sarcomas. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 22 (2): 112-8, 2000 Mar-Apr.|
|5.||Hartmann JT, Fels LM, Franzke A, et al.: Comparative study of the acute nephrotoxicity from standard dose cisplatin +/- ifosfamide and high-dose chemotherapy with carboplatin and ifosfamide. Anticancer Res 20 (5C): 3767-73, 2000 Sep-Oct.|
|6.||Skinner R, Cotterill SJ, Stevens MC: Risk factors for nephrotoxicity after ifosfamide treatment in children: a UKCCSG Late Effects Group study. United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group. Br J Cancer 82 (10): 1636-45, 2000.|
|7.||Stöhr W, Paulides M, Bielack S, et al.: Ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity in 593 sarcoma patients: a report from the Late Effects Surveillance System. Pediatr Blood Cancer 48 (4): 447-52, 2007.|
|8.||Oberlin O, Fawaz O, Rey A, et al.: Long-term evaluation of Ifosfamide-related nephrotoxicity in children. J Clin Oncol 27 (32): 5350-5, 2009.|
|9.||Arndt C, Morgenstern B, Wilson D, et al.: Renal function in children and adolescents following 72 g/m2 of ifosfamide. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 34 (5): 431-3, 1994.|
|10.||Arndt C, Morgenstern B, Hawkins D, et al.: Renal function following combination chemotherapy with ifosfamide and cisplatin in patients with osteogenic sarcoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 32 (2): 93-6, 1999.|
|11.||Prasad VK, Lewis IJ, Aparicio SR, et al.: Progressive glomerular toxicity of ifosfamide in children. Med Pediatr Oncol 27 (3): 149-55, 1996.|
|12.||Skinner R, Pearson AD, English MW, et al.: Risk factors for ifosfamide nephrotoxicity in children. Lancet 348 (9027): 578-80, 1996.|
|13.||Widemann BC, Balis FM, Kim A, et al.: Glucarpidase, leucovorin, and thymidine for high-dose methotrexate-induced renal dysfunction: clinical and pharmacologic factors affecting outcome. J Clin Oncol 28 (25): 3979-86, 2010.|
|14.||Dawson LA, Kavanagh BD, Paulino AC, et al.: Radiation-associated kidney injury. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 76 (3 Suppl): S108-15, 2010.|
|15.||Bölling T, Ernst I, Pape H, et al.: Dose-volume analysis of radiation nephropathy in children: preliminary report of the risk consortium. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 80 (3): 840-4, 2011.|
|16.||Ritchey ML, Green DM, Thomas PR, et al.: Renal failure in Wilms' tumor patients: a report from the National Wilms' Tumor Study Group. Med Pediatr Oncol 26 (2): 75-80, 1996.|
|17.||Smith GR, Thomas PR, Ritchey M, et al.: Long-term renal function in patients with irradiated bilateral Wilms tumor. National Wilms' Tumor Study Group. Am J Clin Oncol 21 (1): 58-63, 1998.|
|18.||Bailey S, Roberts A, Brock C, et al.: Nephrotoxicity in survivors of Wilms' tumours in the North of England. Br J Cancer 87 (10): 1092-8, 2002.|
|19.||Mitus A, Tefft M, Fellers FX: Long-term follow-up of renal functions of 108 children who underwent nephrectomy for malignant disease. Pediatrics 44 (6): 912-21, 1969.|
|20.||Paulino AC, Wen BC, Brown CK, et al.: Late effects in children treated with radiation therapy for Wilms' tumor. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46 (5): 1239-46, 2000.|
|21.||Breslow NE, Collins AJ, Ritchey ML, et al.: End stage renal disease in patients with Wilms tumor: results from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group and the United States Renal Data System. J Urol 174 (5): 1972-5, 2005.|
|22.||Hamilton TE, Ritchey ML, Haase GM, et al.: The management of synchronous bilateral Wilms tumor: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. Ann Surg 253 (5): 1004-10, 2011.|
|23.||Leiper AD: Non-endocrine late complications of bone marrow transplantation in childhood: part II. Br J Haematol 118 (1): 23-43, 2002.|
|24.||Hoffmeister PA, Hingorani SR, Storer BE, et al.: Hypertension in long-term survivors of pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 16 (4): 515-24, 2010.|
|25.||Abboud I, Porcher R, Robin M, et al.: Chronic kidney dysfunction in patients alive without relapse 2 years after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 15 (10): 1251-7, 2009.|
|26.||Ellis MJ, Parikh CR, Inrig JK, et al.: Chronic kidney disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation: a systematic review. Am J Transplant 8 (11): 2378-90, 2008.|
|27.||Ritchey M, Ferrer F, Shearer P, et al.: Late effects on the urinary bladder in patients treated for cancer in childhood: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 52 (4): 439-46, 2009.|
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.
Added Figure 1 about the cumulative incidence of chronic health problems among adult survivors of childhood cancer in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS).
Revised text to state that research has clearly demonstrated that late effects contribute to a high burden of morbidity among adults treated for cancer during childhood, with 60% to almost 90% developing one or more chronic health conditions and 20% to 40% experiencing severe or life-threatening complications during adulthood (cited Wasilewski-Masker et al., Stevens et al., and Garrè et al. as references 6, 7, and 8, respectively).
Added Tukenova et al. as reference 15.
This section was renamed from Second Malignant Neoplasms and the terminology has been changed throughout the summary.
This section was extensively revised.
Late Effects of the Cardiovascular System
Added Adams et al., Berry et al., and Galper et al. as references 5, 6, and 9, respectively.
Added text to state that the cardiac toxic effects are related to total radiation dose, individual radiation fraction size, and the volume of the heart that is exposed. Modern radiation techniques allow a reduction in the volume of cardiac tissue incidentally exposed to the higher radiation doses. This may translate into a reduced risk for adverse cardiac events.
Added text to state that among the factors associated with an increased risk of anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy, cumulative dose appears to be the most significant in regard to risk of congestive heart failure, which develops in less than 5% of survivors after anthracycline exposure of less than 300 mg/m2, approaches 15% at doses between 300 and 500 mg/m2, and exceeds 30% for doses greater than 600 mg/m2 (cited van Dalen et al. and Lipshultz et al. as references 21 and 22, respectively).
Added Barry et al and Vrooman et al. as references 29 and 30, respectively.
Added Figure 2 about the cumulative incidence of cardiac disorders among childhood cancer survivors in the CCSS.
Added text to state that newer treatment approaches are specifically designed to reduce exposure to cardiotoxic agents and radiation dose and volume; moreover, newer trials explore the safe elimination of radiation from primary therapy.
Added text to state that French investigators observed a significant association with radiation dose to the brain and long-term cerebrovascular mortality among 4,227 five-year childhood cancer survivors. Survivors who received more than 50 Gy to the prepontine cistern had a hazard ratio of 17.8 of death from cerebrovascular disease compared with those who had not received radiation therapy or who had received less than 0.1 Gy in the prepontine cistern region (cited Haddy et al. and Bowers et al. as references 59 and 61, respectively).
Revised text to state that in general, survivors should be counseled regarding the cardiovascular benefits of maintaining healthy weight, adhering to a heart-healthy diet, participating in regular physical activity, and abstaining from smoking.
Late Effects of the Central Nervous System
This section was extensively revised.
Late Effects of the Digestive System
Added Hsieh et al. as reference 9.
Added text to state that among 5-year childhood cancer survivors participating in the CCSS, the cumulative incidence of self-reported gastrointestinal (GI) conditions was 37.6% at 20 years from cancer diagnosis representing an almost twofold excess risk of upper GI and lower GI complications compared with sibling controls. Factors predicting higher risk of specific GI complications include older age at diagnosis, intensified therapy, abdominal radiation, and abdominal surgery (cited Goldsby et al. as reference 28).
Added Mulder et al. as reference 29.
Added text to state that gallbladder disease was the most frequent late-onset liver condition reported among participants in the CCSS and they had a twofold excess risk compared with sibling controls.
Added text to state that fatty liver with insulin resistance has also been reported to develop more frequently in long-term childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial radiation before allogeneic stem cell transplantation who were not overweight or obese (cited Tomita et al. as reference 59).
Late Effects of the Endocrine System
Added Figure 3 about the probability of developing hypothyroidism according to radiation dose in 5-year survivors of childhood cancer in the CCSS.
The Pituitary Gland subsection was renamed from Neuroendocrine System.
Added Testis and Ovary as a new subsection.
Added Müller et al. as reference 81.
Added Kohler et al. as reference 89.
Late Effects of the Musculoskeletal System
Added text to state that French investigators observed a significant risk for lower femoral bone mineral density among adult survivors of childhood leukemia treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation who had gonadal deficiency (cited Le Meignen et al. as reference 48).
Late Effects of the Reproductive System
Added Figure 4 about the cumulative incidence curves of nonsurgical premature menopause in survivors compared with siblings.
Added text to state that a follow-up study of the same CCSS cohort demonstrated impaired fertility in female survivors who received modest doses of hypothalamic pituitary radiation and no or very low doses of ovarian radiation, providing support for the contribution of the role of luteal phase deficiency to infertility in some women (cited Green et al. as reference 49).
Purpose of This Summary
This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the late effects of treatment for childhood cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.
Reviewers and Updates
This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:
Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in which Board members evaluate the strength of the evidence in the published articles and determine how the article should be included in the summary.
The lead reviewers for Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer are:
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National Cancer Institute: PDQ® Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Date last modified <MM/DD/YYYY>. Available at: http://cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/lateeffects/HealthProfessional. Accessed <MM/DD/YYYY>.
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The NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support and resources for cancer patients and their families. For a quick search, use the search box in the upper right corner of each Web page. The results for a wide range of search terms will include a list of "Best Bets," editorially chosen Web pages that are most closely related to the search term entered.
There are also many other places to get materials and information about cancer treatment and services. Hospitals in your area may have information about local and regional agencies that have information on finances, getting to and from treatment, receiving care at home, and dealing with problems related to cancer treatment.
The NCI has booklets and other materials for patients, health professionals, and the public. These publications discuss types of cancer, methods of cancer treatment, coping with cancer, and clinical trials. Some publications provide information on tests for cancer, cancer causes and prevention, cancer statistics, and NCI research activities. NCI materials on these and other topics may be ordered online or printed directly from the NCI Publications Locator. These materials can also be ordered by telephone from the Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237).
Last Revised: 2012-03-23
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