Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is difficult to diagnose because many women have no symptoms or mild symptoms that can be mistaken for another condition. Because diagnosis is difficult, there are no accurate statistics showing how common PID is in the general population. But some general facts are known:
- Paavonen J, et al. (2008). Pelvic inflammatory disease. In KK Holmes et al., eds., Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 4th ed., pp. 1017–1050. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Soper DE (2010). Infections of the female pelvis. In Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th ed., vol. 1, pp. 1511–1519. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.
Last Revised: November 23, 2010
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