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A cataract is a painless, cloudy area in the lens of the eye. The lens is enclosed in a lining called the lens capsule. Cataract surgery separates the cataract from the lens capsule. In most cases, the lens will be replaced with an intraocular lens implant (IOL). If an IOL cannot be used, contact lenses or eyeglasses must be worn to compensate for the lack of a natural lens.
Phacoemulsification and standard extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) are surgical methods that remove the cataract as well as the front portion of the lens capsule (anterior capsule). The back of the lens capsule (posterior capsule) is left inside the eye to keep the vitreous gel in the back of the eye from oozing forward through the pupil and causing problems. The posterior capsule also supports the IOL and helps keep it in the proper position. These types of surgery are usually done in an outpatient setting and not in a hospital.
Phacoemulsification (small-incision surgery) is the most common type of cataract surgery. It is used more often than standard ECCE, even though they are similar procedures.
During phacoemulsification surgery:
During standard ECCE:
Most cataract surgery is done using a topical anesthetic (eyedrops) or a local anesthetic. Local anesthetic may involve a sedative for relaxation followed by an injection beside, under, or inside the eye to deaden nerves and prevent blinking or eye movement during surgery.
General anesthetic may be needed for:
Before you leave the outpatient center, you will get the immediate eye care that you need after surgery. The surgeon will review the symptoms of possible complications, eye protection, activities, medicines, and required visits (see below). He or she will also tell you what to do for emergency care if you need it. Portions of the follow-up may be done by another health professional, such as an optometrist or a community health nurse.
The eye that was operated on may be bandaged for 1 night after surgery. You will wear a protective shield over the eye at night for about a week. There is normally no significant pain after surgery.
You most likely will need to see the doctor for checkups 1 or 2 days after surgery, and again within a few weeks after surgery. If any complications occur, visits should be sooner and more frequent.
Checkups following cataract surgery include:
Most people get a new eyeglass prescription about 6 weeks after surgery.
Contact your doctor promptly if you notice any signs of complications following cataract surgery, such as:
The decision to have this procedure is based on whether:
The surgeon may need to do standard extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) instead of phacoemulsification if the cataract is too hard to be broken up by sound waves (ultrasound).
Cataract surgery is successful for 85 to 92 out of 100 adults. Surgery may also improve vision in infants who have cataracts.
In one large study, 95 out of 100 adults were satisfied with the results of their surgery. The people who were not satisfied were older adults who had other eye problems along with cataracts.1
People who have surgery for cataracts usually have:
Studies done with adults 1 year after surgery show that phacoemulsification works better than standard extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) to improve vision.2 Also, recovery of sight occurs sooner after surgery with phacoemulsification. And it is less likely that you will need glasses for distance vision after phacoemulsification surgery.
Fewer than 5 out of 100 people have complications from cataract surgery that could threaten their sight or require further surgery. The rate of complications increases in people who have other eye diseases in addition to the cataract.1
Although the risk is low, surgery for cataracts does involve the risk of partial to total vision loss if the surgery is not successful or if there are complications. Some complications can be treated and vision loss reversed, but others cannot. Complications that may occur with cataract surgery include:
Complications that may occur some time after surgery include:
Before you have surgery for cataracts, tell your doctor all of the medicines you are taking. That way, your doctor can be prepared to handle any problems that arise. For example, alpha-blockers (such as terazosin) and blood thinners (such as warfarin) can cause problems during the surgery.
Removing cataracts using phacoemulsification is preferred over standard extracapsular surgery because:
The improvement of vision is the same for both procedures. But the healing process is quicker for phacoemulsification.
The more experience your surgeon has, the less likely you are to have problems. Ask your family doctor or optometrist to suggest a surgeon.
People usually need reading glasses (glasses for near vision) after cataract surgery, no matter which type of surgery is done. But some people may choose to have different lens implants (intraocular lens, or IOL) in their eyes so that one eye can be used for distance vision and the other for near vision (monovision). A type of IOL that allows you to see both distance and near vision is available. Talk to your doctor about the pros and cons of each type of IOL.
In some children, surgery to remove a cataract that causes a lot of vision loss may be very important in preventing blindness. The most critical period for the development of sight is from birth to 3 months. The earlier cataracts in children are diagnosed and treated, the more likely it is that their eyesight will be protected.
Infants have the highest risk (almost 100%) for cloudiness in the back portion of the lens capsule following cataract surgery. If posterior capsule opacification develops after cataract surgery, a laser procedure or a vitrectomy that removes the posterior capsule may be needed. For that reason, most pediatric cataract surgeries remove the central portion of this posterior capsule during the first operation. This may allow better sight and reduce the need for laser surgery.
If a child has cataracts that are causing a lot of vision loss in both eyes, surgery on the second eye needs to be done within a few weeks. As in adults, only one eye is operated on during each surgery. This decreases the chance of complications occurring in both eyes at the same time.
Because of infants' rapid eyeball growth and for other reasons, some surgeons don't use IOLs in infants. Instead, an infant will wear a contact lens to replace the lens that is removed from the eye. If surgery can be delayed until the child is 1 to 2 years old, the surgeon may be able to use an IOL to replace the lens in the child's eye. Surgery cannot always be delayed, though, because of the risk of amblyopia and permanent vision loss.
- American Academy of Ophthalmology (2011). Cataract in the Adult Eye (Preferred Practice Pattern). San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology. Available online: http://one.aao.org/CE/PracticeGuidelines/PPP_Content.aspx?cid=a80a87ce-9042-4677-85d7-4b876deed276.
- Allen D (2011). Cataract, search date May 2010. Online version of BMJ Clinical Evidence. Also available online: http://www.clinicalevidence.com.
Other Works Consulted
- Riaz Y, et al. (2006). Surgical interventions for age-related cataract. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4).
Last Revised: August 24, 2011
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