Rabies is an infection caused by a virus. It affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) of mammals, including humans. It is nearly always deadly if not treated before symptoms begin.
Animals that are infected with rabies—rabid animals—can spread the disease through their saliva or through brain tissue.
It is rare for people in the United States or Canada to get rabies. It is more common in developing nations.
People usually get rabies when a rabid animal bites them. People in the U.S. and Canada are most likely to get rabies from bats.1 People in many other countries are most likely to get rabies from dog bites.2, 3
Bats, raccoons, skunks, foxes, and coyotes are the animals most likely to have rabies in the U.S. and Canada. Small mammals such as mice and squirrels almost never have rabies.
Sometimes the rabies virus can spread to pets, such as dogs, cats, and ferrets. But household pets rarely get rabies, because most of them get rabies vaccines. Pets that stay indoors are very unlikely to get rabies.
It’s possible to get rabies even when you don't see an animal bite. For example, bat bites or scratches may be so small that you don't notice them. If you or your children come in direct contact with a bat, or if you find a bat in a closed room with a sleeping person, call your doctor right away.
People also can get rabies by handling animals with rabies or inhaling the virus, but these cases are rare.
Signs of rabies in animals may include drooling, foaming at the mouth, or paralysis. A pet with rabies also may behave differently than usual, such as acting shy when the pet usually is friendly. A wild animal with rabies may have no fear of humans.
Rabies in humans begins with symptoms such as fever, cough, or sore throat. Later, symptoms become more serious and can include restlessness, hallucinations, and seizures. The final stage is coma and death.
If you think you've been exposed to the rabies virus, it's very important to get medical care before symptoms begin. If symptoms appear, it’s too late for a cure, and the infection will probably lead to death. The time from exposure to the virus until symptoms appear usually is 2 to 3 months. In rare cases, it may be shorter or much longer.
The treatment for someone who has been exposed to rabies is a series of shots known as postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). These shots help the body's immune system destroy the disease in its early stages. Getting PEP before symptoms appear usually prevents infection, and you are likely to recover.
In the U.S. and Canada, PEP has two parts, usually given at the same time:
Some vaccines that aren't approved for use in the U.S. or Canada are used in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) approves of these vaccines.4 But they may cause worse reactions than newer vaccines. If you are exposed to rabies outside of the U.S. or Canada and have any choice, request HDCV (human diploid cell vaccine), RVA (rabies vaccine, adsorbed), or PCEC (purified chick embryo cell culture). If these aren't available, it is better to accept one of the other vaccines than to get no vaccine at all. As soon as you can return home, ask your doctor about whether you should get any more vaccines.
First, wash the animal bite, scratch, or open sore with soap and water. Then call your doctor and local health department right away. They can advise you on what to do next.
If you've been bitten by or exposed to an animal at low risk for having rabies, such as a pet, the animal will be captured and watched for signs of rabies. If there’s a chance that the animal is rabid, you will start getting shots right away.
If you've been bitten by or exposed to an animal at high risk for having rabies, you will start getting shots right away. If possible, the animal will be watched for signs of rabies or will be killed for testing. If it turns out that the animal doesn't have rabies, you can stop the shots.
If an animal shows signs of rabies but can't be captured for testing, it often is assumed to be rabid.
To avoid contact with the rabies virus:
Preventive rabies vaccination(What is a PDF document?) may be recommended if you are at high risk of exposure because of your work or hobbies. It may also be recommended if you plan to travel in areas where rabies is a risk, such as parts of Asia, Africa, and Central and South America. Contact your doctor or local public health department for more information.
Learning about rabies:
|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Rabies|
|1600 Clifton Road|
|Atlanta, GA 30329-4018|
This page on the CDC Web site provides information to consumers about rabies. Resources include what there is to know about rabies exposure and vaccination as well as the problem of bat-related rabies, how to handle encounters with bats, and how to "bat-proof" your home.
|KidsHealth for Parents, Children, and Teens|
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|Jacksonville, FL 32256|
This website is sponsored by the Nemours Foundation. It has a wide range of information about children's health, from allergies and diseases to normal growth and development (birth to adolescence). This website offers separate areas for kids, teens, and parents, each providing age-appropriate information that the child or parent can understand. You can sign up to get weekly emails about your area of interest.
|World Health Organization|
|Avenue Appia 20|
|1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland|
The World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations. It has about 200 member states. WHO promotes technical cooperation among nations on health issues, carries out programs to control and eliminate disease, and strives to improve the quality of human life.
The Web site has information on many health topics, including health and disease related to travel.
- Plotkin SA, et al. (2009). Rhabdoviridae: Rabies virus. In RD Feigin et al., eds., Feigin and Cherry’s Textbook of Pediatrics Infectious Diseases, 6th ed., vol. 2, pp. 2494–2511. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2008). Human rabies prevention—United States 2008. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR, 57(Early Release): 1–28. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5703a1.htm?s_cid=rr5703a1_e.
- Rupprecht CE, Givvons RV (2004). Prophylaxis against rabies. New England Journal of Medicine, 351: 2626–2635.
- World Health Organization (2008). Fact Sheet: Rabies. Available online: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs099/en.
Other Works Consulted
- American Public Health Association (2008). Rabies. In DL Heymann, ed., Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, 19th ed., pp. 498–508. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
- Bassin SL, et al. (2010). Rhabdoviruses. In GL Mandell et al., eds., Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th ed., vol. 2, pp. 2249–2258. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). Use of a reduced (4-dose) vaccine schedule for postexposure prophylaxis to prevent human rabies. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR, 59(RR02): 1–9. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5902a1.htm?s_cid=rr5902a1_e.
- Jackson AC, Johannsen EC (2008). Rabies virus and other rhabdovirus infections. In AS Fauci et al., eds., Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 17th ed., vol. 1, pp. 1222–1226. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Lewis LM, et al. (2006). Bites and stings. In DC Dale, DD Federman, eds., ACP Medicine, section 8, chap. 2. New York: WebMD.
- National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc. (2008). Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2008. MMWR, 57(RR-02): 1–9. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5702a1.htm.
- Peterson LR, Gubler DJ (2006). Viral zoonoses. In DC Dale, DD Federman, eds., ACP Medicine, section 7, chap. 31. New York: WebMD.
- Toltzis P (2007). Rabies. In RM Kliegman et al., eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 18th ed., pp. 1423–1426. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
- Wikerson JA (2007). Rabies. In PS Auerbach, ed., Wilderness Medicine, 5th ed., pp. 1206–1225. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier.
|Primary Medical Reviewer||E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine|
|Primary Medical Reviewer||Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine|
|Specialist Medical Reviewer||W. David Colby IV, MSc, MD, FRCPC - Infectious Disease|
|Last Revised||August 15, 2011|
Last Revised: August 15, 2011
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