Glaucoma is the name for a group of eye diseases that damage the optic nerve. The optic nerve, which carries information from the eye to the brain, is in the back of the eye. When the nerve is damaged, you can lose your vision.
Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of legal blindness in the world. At first, people with glaucoma lose side (peripheral) vision. But if the disease is not treated, vision loss may get worse. This can lead to total blindness over time.
There are three types of glaucoma.
Finding and treating glaucoma early is important to prevent blindness. If you are at high risk for the disease, be sure to get checked by an eye specialist (ophthalmologist) even if you have no symptoms.
Your risk for glaucoma rises after age 40. Race is also a factor. Blacks are more likely than whites to get the disease. You are also at risk if you have diabetes or if a close family member has had glaucoma.
The exact cause of glaucoma is not known. Experts think that increased pressure in the eye (intraocular pressure) may cause the nerve damage in many cases. But some people who have glaucoma have normal eye pressure.
Some people get glaucoma after an eye injury or after eye surgery. Some medicines (corticosteroids) that are used to treat other diseases may also cause glaucoma.
If you have open-angle glaucoma, the only symptom you are likely to notice is loss of vision. You may not notice this until it is serious. That's because, at first, the eye that is less affected makes up for the loss. Side vision is often lost before central vision.
Symptoms of closed-angle glaucoma can be mild, with symptoms like blurred vision that last only for a short time. Severe signs of closed-angle glaucoma include longer-lasting episodes of blurred vision or pain in or around the eye. You may also see colored halos around lights, have red eyes, or feel sick to your stomach and vomit.
In congenital glaucoma, signs can include watery eyes and sensitivity to light. Your baby may rub his or her eyes, squint, or keep the eyes closed much of the time.
Your doctor will ask questions about your symptoms and do a physical exam. If your doctor thinks you have glaucoma, you will then need to see an ophthalmologist for eye exams and tests.
See your doctor if you notice blind spots in your vision or if over time you are having more trouble seeing. It's also a good idea to be checked for the disease if you have a family history of open-angle glaucoma, are age 40 or older, have diabetes, or have other risk factors for glaucoma.
Glaucoma is usually treated with medicine such as eyedrops. Be sure to follow a daily schedule for your eyedrops so that they work the way they should. You will likely need to take medicine for the rest of your life. You may also need laser treatment or surgery.
In adults, treatment can't bring back vision that has been lost, but it can help keep your vision from getting worse. Treatment aims to stop more damage to the optic nerve by lowering the pressure in the eyes.
Learning that you have glaucoma can be hard, since much of your vision may be gone by the time it is detected. With counseling and training, you can find ways to keep your quality of life. You can use vision aids, such as large-print items and special video systems, to help you cope with reduced eyesight. You can also create a support group of people who can help with tough tasks.
Learning about glaucoma:
Living with glaucoma:
Health Tools help you make wise health decisions or take action to improve your health.
|Actionsets are designed to help people take an active role in managing a health condition.|
|Eye Problems: Using Eyedrops and Eye Ointment|
|Vision Problems: Living With Poor Eyesight|
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that can cause blindness by damaging the nerve cells located in the back of the eye (the optic nerve). In many cases this damage to the optic nerve is thought to be caused by increased pressure in the eye (intraocular pressure, or IOP) that results from the buildup of fluid inside the eye. But damage can occur without increased IOP.
Get more information on eye anatomy and function.
In open-angle glaucoma (OAG), the cause of damage to the optic nerve is not well understood. Normally, the shape of the front part of the eye (anterior chamber) is maintained by a fluid called aqueous humor, which is produced in and removed from the eye to maintain a constant pressure. Sometimes the aqueous humor does not drain out of the eye normally, but the reason this occurs is not known. When this happens, fluid builds up inside the eye, causing increased IOP. Many people with open-angle glaucoma have higher-than-normal IOP. The increased pressure inside the eye damages the optic nerve, resulting in progressive loss of vision.
But not all people with open-angle glaucoma have increased pressure inside the eye. Estimates vary, but as many as half of people with OAG may occur without increased IOP. The first signs of this type of glaucoma, referred to as normal- or low-tension glaucoma, are changes within the optic disc (enlarged cup-disc ratio).
See a picture of closed-angle glaucoma.
Glaucoma that is present at birth (congenital glaucoma) or that develops in the first few years of life (infantile glaucoma) is often caused by certain birth defects. A birth defect may develop because of an infection in the mother during pregnancy, such as rubella, or because of an inherited condition such as neurofibromatosis.
Glaucoma may also develop as a result of another condition. This is called secondary glaucoma.
Symptoms of glaucoma vary according to the type of glaucoma you have.
If you have open-angle glaucoma (OAG), the only symptom you are likely to notice is vision loss. Side (peripheral) vision is usually lost before central vision.
You may not notice side vision loss until it becomes severe, because the less affected eye makes up for the loss. The loss of sharpness of vision (visual acuity) may not become apparent until late in the disease. By that time, significant vision loss has occurred.
Closed-angle glaucoma (CAG) may cause no apparent symptoms or only mild symptoms. You may experience short episodes of symptoms (subacute closed-angle glaucoma) that usually occur in the evening and are over by morning. Or you may have severe (acute) symptoms that require immediate medical attention. Symptoms of closed-angle glaucoma usually affect only one eye at a time and often include:
Symptoms of glaucoma present at birth (congenital glaucoma) and glaucoma that develops in the first few years of life (infantile glaucoma) may include:
Glaucoma usually affects side (peripheral) vision first. If glaucoma is not treated, vision loss will continue, resulting in total blindness over time. If glaucoma is identified early and treated appropriately, good eyesight can usually be maintained.
Open-angle glaucoma, the most common type of glaucoma in the United States and Canada, usually affects both eyes at the same time. But one eye may be affected more than the other. In open-angle glaucoma, vision changes so slowly that much of your eyesight may be affected before you notice the condition.
Closed-angle glaucoma is less common and usually affects only one eye at a time.
Acute closed-angle glaucoma develops suddenly and is an emergency medical situation.
You may have short episodes of closed-angle glaucoma. Without treatment, these recurrent episodes can develop into an emergency situation (acute closed-angle glaucoma) or become a long-term problem (chronic closed-angle glaucoma). If chronic closed-angle glaucoma is not treated, you will gradually lose your sight and you may become completely blind.
Glaucoma that is present at birth (congenital glaucoma) or that develops within the first few years of life (infantile glaucoma) is rare. But it can be very serious. If congenital glaucoma is left untreated, permanent blindness can develop rapidly.
Treatment for any type of glaucoma may delay or prevent further vision loss, but it cannot reverse vision loss that has already occurred. In a few rare cases of congenital glaucoma, some reversal of the damage to the optic nerve has been seen.
If you have glaucoma, normal use of your eyes (such as for reading or watching television) will not speed up vision loss or make the condition worse.
How much your life will be affected depends on your lifestyle and on how bad your vision loss is. For information on how to live with low vision, see the Home Treatment section of this topic.
Things that increase your risk (risk factors) for glaucoma vary according to the different types of glaucoma.
Risk factors for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) include:
Risk factors for closed-angle glaucoma (CAG) include:
Risk factors for congenital glaucoma include:
Call 911 or other emergency services immediately if you have these symptoms of sudden (acute) closed-angle glaucoma:
Call your doctor if you:
If your doctor detects that you have a slight increase in the pressure in your eyes (intraocular pressure, or IOP) and you have no other risk factors for glaucoma, your doctor may not treat it right away. But you will need to have the pressure in your eyes checked regularly. And you will need regular eye exams to make sure you are not developing glaucoma.
Watchful waiting is not appropriate if you have symptoms of sudden (acute) closed-angle glaucoma. See the When to Call a Doctor section of this topic.
The following doctors can diagnose glaucoma:
Decisions about treatment for glaucoma need to be made with the help of an ophthalmologist.
An optician cannot diagnose or treat glaucoma.
To prepare for your appointment, see the topic Making the Most of Your Appointment.
Early detection and treatment of glaucoma are important for controlling the condition and preventing blindness. Emergency treatment may be needed for sudden (acute) closed-angle glaucoma (CAG).
A doctor evaluating possible glaucoma will take a medical history and do a physical exam. If glaucoma is suspected, you will usually be referred to an eye specialist (ophthalmologist) for further testing and treatment.
The eye specialist will check your eyes to help find out if you have the disease and how severe it is. He or she will look for certain signs of damage in the eye. The following tests may be used to detect or to monitor glaucoma:
After glaucoma is diagnosed, eye exams (including tonometry and ophthalmoscopy) are done on a regular basis to monitor the disease.
If you have glaucoma and have already experienced a significant loss of vision, your doctor may also do a low-vision evaluation to help find ways you can make the most of your remaining vision and maintain your quality of life.
Because people with glaucoma may have normal pressures in their eyes, measuring eye pressure (tonometry) should not be used as the only screening test for glaucoma. It should be combined with other tests before glaucoma can be diagnosed.
If you are younger than 40 and have no known risk factors for glaucoma, the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) recommends that you have a complete eye exam every 5 to 10 years. This includes tests that check for glaucoma.2 The AAO suggests more frequent routine eye exams as you age.
The AAO also suggests that people who are at risk for glaucoma have complete eye exams according to the schedule below:
People at increased risk for glaucoma include those who:3
Treatment for glaucoma focuses on preserving eyesight by slowing the damage to the nerve located in the back of the eye (optic nerve). In adults, treatment cannot restore eyesight that has already been lost as a result of glaucoma. But in certain children, some of the damage caused by congenital glaucoma can be reversed.
Most treatment for glaucoma is directed at lowering the pressure in the eyes (intraocular pressure, or IOP). Optic nerve damage can occur at any level of eye pressure, even within the normal range. Lowering the IOP often can help protect the optic nerve from further damage.
Treatment options include medicines, laser treatments, and surgery. In the United States and Canada, treatment usually begins with medicines. When treatment with medicines does not successfully lower pressure in the eyes, laser or surgery treatments need to be considered. But in some instances it may be appropriate to use laser or surgical treatments first, particularly in moderate to severe cases. Studies indicate that treatment with medicine or surgery are both effective, but the risks and benefits may differ depending on the type of glaucoma, age, race, and other factors.5 If you have glaucoma, ask your doctor about all the possible treatment options and which treatments may be better for your particular condition.
If you are diagnosed with glaucoma, your eye doctor will figure out the eye pressure that can help protect your optic nerve from further damage. This is called your target eye pressure. The target is based on the amount of damage to the optic nerve and your current IOP. The target is about 20% to 30% less than the highest IOP you've had.
Your eye doctor will want to check your eyes and your IOP on a regular basis. If your doctor sees nerve damage even though your eyes have reached the target pressure, he or she will set a lower target. And you may need treatment to lower your IOP and help prevent vision loss.
Treatment for open-angle glaucoma may involve medicines (eyedrops) that lower the pressure inside the eye, laser treatment, or other surgery. In the United States and Canada, eyedrops that lower the IOP are usually tried first. Decreasing eye pressure in open-angle glaucoma slows the progression of the disease and helps prevent further vision loss. But other treatments (laser or surgery) may sometimes be considered as an initial form of treatment if you have moderate or severe open-angle glaucoma.
Initial treatment for closed-angle glaucoma (CAG) is usually a procedure called laser peripheral iridotomy. You may also need medicine to help you stay at your target eye pressure.
Closed-angle glaucoma can be an emergency situation (acute closed-angle glaucoma), because blockage of fluid in the eye causes a sudden increase in pressure, resulting in rapid damage to the optic nerve. Acute closed-angle glaucoma usually causes significant pain in the eye. Treatment for acute closed-angle glaucoma includes medicines to lower IOP, monitoring of the drainage angle, and surgery. If it is not treated immediately, blindness can develop rapidly.
Congenital glaucoma almost always requires surgery to lower IOP. Medicine may sometimes be used, but it usually does not work as well.
If you already have significant vision loss from glaucoma, your doctor will also do a low-vision evaluation. The evaluation will help you and your doctor find ways to make the best use of your remaining vision. It also can include suggestions for counseling and training on dealing with reduced vision.
Because glaucoma can lead to a significant loss of vision before it is detected, learning that you have glaucoma can be difficult. You may feel sad and become depressed. Your doctor can refer you to counselors who specialize in helping people adjust to living with low vision.
After you start treatment for glaucoma, you will need regular eye exams by an ophthalmologist. During these exams, your doctor will likely check your IOP. After the target pressure is reached, your doctor will still want to see you at least once a year to check your eyes and vision. If there are signs that the disease is getting worse, your doctor may lower your target eye pressure and adjust your treatment.
If the pressure in the eye continues to be high or if damage to the optic nerve gets worse despite treatment with eyedrops, laser treatment may be done.
If you are diagnosed with closed-angle glaucoma, you will need regular evaluations to check your drainage angles and eye pressure. You may need laser treatment to prevent sudden closure of the angle.
Medicines, usually eyedrops, are used to lower IOP by either decreasing the amount of fluid produced by the eye or increasing the amount of fluid that drains out of the eye. It is important to understand that treatment for glaucoma needs to continue for the rest of your life. Unlike some chronic diseases in which failure to take medicines causes noticeable symptoms, not using your glaucoma medicines as prescribed will not usually cause any obvious symptoms. But it causes slow, often unnoticed loss of eyesight that is permanent and that could eventually lead to blindness.
Home treatment can help you live with the effects of glaucoma. You can use vision aids and adaptive technologies, such as video enlargement systems and large-print items, to help you function better with reduced vision. You can build a support network of people who can help you with difficult tasks. And you can get counseling and training to help you cope with reduced vision and maintain your quality of life.
Surgery for glaucoma usually is needed only if you continue to lose vision and the pressure in your eyes (intraocular pressure, or IOP) cannot be lowered with medicines or laser treatment. In some countries, such as Great Britain, surgery is done early in the disease process.
Surgery may be done to make another opening for fluid to leave the eye. Sometimes, surgery to destroy part of the eye that produces the fluid (ciliary body) may also be used to decrease fluid production. This type of surgery is usually done only for advanced cases of glaucoma in which other forms of treatment have not worked.
Glaucoma cannot be cured, but the pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure, or IOP) can be controlled with medicines, surgery, or both. In adults, treatment for glaucoma cannot restore eyesight that has been lost because of the condition, but it can prevent further damage to the optic nerve and save remaining eyesight. In certain children with congenital glaucoma, some of the optic nerve damage caused by the disease can be reversed with treatment.
Because glaucoma can't be cured and treatment does not always prevent further loss of vision, people may try alternative unproven treatment methods, such as acupuncture or marijuana. But most of these alternative treatments either have not been studied or have not been proved to work. Such treatments may be expensive, and some can be hazardous to your health.
Most of the risk factors (such as age, race, and family history) for glaucoma are beyond your control. No matter if you are at increased risk for glaucoma or not, it's best to get routine eye exams and tests as your eye doctor suggests. Finding and treating glaucoma early is important to help prevent blindness.
If you have high pressure in your eyes but you don't have glaucoma, your eye doctor may suggest treatment that helps lower your eye pressure. This may help delay or prevent the onset of glaucoma.
The success of treatment for glaucoma depends on your learning about the disease, using your medicines as prescribed, and getting routine checkups to monitor the condition and prevent complications. By doing so, you can decrease your chance of losing your eyesight.
Reduced vision from glaucoma can affect a person's life in many ways. How much you are affected depends on how bad your vision loss is, what kinds of activities you do, and your lifestyle. Work with your doctor to find ways to make the best use of your remaining vision. You can use vision aids such as video enlargement systems and large-print items, build a support network, and get counseling and training to help you cope with reduced vision and maintain your quality of life.
Because glaucoma often leads to a significant loss of vision, learning that you have glaucoma can be difficult. You may feel anger or fear, or you may feel sad and become depressed. These feelings are perfectly normal. If you need help in dealing with them, talk to your doctor and to your family and friends. Your doctor can also refer you to counselors who specialize in helping people adjust to living with low vision. Because glaucoma is a lifelong disease, it may be helpful for you to join a support group for people who have the disease.
For more information on support groups, products, and services related to glaucoma and living with low vision, see the Other Places to Get Help section of this topic.
Medicines to lower the pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure, or IOP) are used to treat all types of glaucoma. They work either by reducing the amount of fluid (aqueous humor) that is produced by the eye or by increasing the amount of fluid that drains out of the eye. These medicines may be given as eyedrops; as pills; in liquid form by mouth; or, in emergency situations, through a vein. In most cases, eyedrops are used first.
In congenital glaucoma, medicines usually do not work over a long period of time and are usually used only until surgery can be done. The medicines may be used to decrease the pressure in the eyes and reduce the cloudiness of the clear front surface (cornea) of the child's eye.
Medicines used to treat glaucoma lower the pressure in the eyes (intraocular pressure, or IOP) by either decreasing the amount of fluid produced by the eyes or increasing the amount of fluid that drains out of the eyes.
Medicines that decrease the amount of fluid produced by the eye include:
Medicines that increase the amount of fluid that drains out of the eye include:
Some medicines have two different medicines mixed into one bottle. Examples include Cosopt, which contains both a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and a beta-blocker, and Combigan, which contains both an adrenergic agonist and a beta-blocker.
When medicines are used to treat glaucoma, the goal is to prevent further damage to the optic nerve by lowering the pressure in the eyes. The level of pressure in the eye needed to damage the optic nerve varies from one person to another. For this reason, a single target eye pressure cannot be used for everyone. Your target pressure may need to be adjusted if the optic nerve shows further damage despite treatment.
When glaucoma has already caused vision loss, further vision loss may develop even after the pressure in the eye is lowered to the normal range with medicine.
In most cases, medicines used to treat glaucoma must be continued daily for the rest of your life. Putting eyedrops in the eye at specific times of the day may be inconvenient. Eyedrops may also cause discomfort. You need to follow the prescribed daily schedule for your eyedrops in order for them to work properly.
Medicines for glaucoma can be expensive. Some cost-saving tips, such as using a measured-dose dispenser, may help.
Let all your doctors know that you are taking glaucoma medicines. Other medicines that you are taking may need to be adjusted or stopped to prevent side effects.
There are fewer complications from the new surgical procedures for glaucoma, but medicine treatment still usually has fewer side effects than surgery. Many people who use glaucoma medicines may never need surgery for glaucoma.
Surgery is not always needed to treat glaucoma. Medicines can often control the pressure in the eyes, preventing further vision loss and blindness. Medicine will usually be tried first before surgery is considered.
Doctors can use either a surgical cutting tool or a very focused beam of light, called a laser, to do surgery for glaucoma. Laser surgery is usually tried first when glaucoma medicines do not lower the pressure in the eyes (intraocular pressure, or IOP). If laser surgery does not help, your doctor may try conventional surgery.
Surgery may be needed for:
The primary goal of surgery for glaucoma is to preserve eyesight by:
In some cases surgery may be done to relieve pain caused by glaucoma.
There are three basic types of surgery for glaucoma in adults.
This type of surgery involves making a trapdoor that allows fluid to drain from the eye. The surgeon can use either a laser or a surgical cutting tool to do this. In severe glaucoma, surgery also may involve putting in a filtering device (seton), usually made of plastic, that drains fluid away from the front part of the eye to a place where it can drain out of the eye.
Both laser and conventional surgeries can be used to prevent closure of the drainage angle. These procedures involve making a new opening in the colored part of the eye (iris) that allows fluid to flow through the eye. They are used to treat sudden (acute) closed-angle glaucoma and will prevent closed-angle glaucoma in people who have narrow drainage angles. Laser iridotomy can usually be done instead of surgical iridectomy. But some people with complicated or severe glaucoma may need to have surgical iridotomy.
When other surgery fails to improve the flow of fluid from the eye, procedures to destroy the part of the eye that produces fluid (ciliary body) can be done. These procedures are also used when scar tissue has formed after a previous surgery. One example is laser cyclophotocoagulation, which uses a laser to destroy the ciliary body.
Destroying the ciliary body decreases the amount of fluid produced in the eye, reducing the pressure in the eye. Procedures that decrease fluid in the eye are only used for people who have severe glaucoma that has not gotten better after they have tried medicines or other forms of surgery.
For congenital glaucoma, there are two slightly different procedures that both attempt to open the drainage angle directly. They are equally successful in children, but they are not used for adults. If these procedures fail in a child, then trabeculectomy or tube-shunt (seton glaucoma) surgery may be tried.
Clouding of the lens (cataract) can develop after surgery for glaucoma. This is one reason that surgery is not usually used first to treat open-angle glaucoma.
Cataracts may occur in people who also have glaucoma. This commonly occurs in older people. Surgery to remove the cataract may be done at the same time as surgery for glaucoma. If surgery for glaucoma and a cataract are done at the same time, you may notice improved eyesight after surgery.
The decision whether or not to have surgery is often more difficult in glaucoma than in many other conditions because:
As with any other surgery, you and your doctor should make the decision to operate based on the risks and benefits of having the surgery. One thing to consider is which eye should be operated on first. There are other questions about glaucoma surgery that you should discuss with your doctor before making a decision.
It is not unusual for some people to have both open- and closed-angle glaucoma, so they may need more than one kind of procedure.
|American Health Assistance Foundation|
|22512 Gateway Center Drive|
|Clarksburg, MD 20871|
This nonprofit group works to find cures, preventions, and improved treatments for age-related degenerative diseases. The website has information about Alzheimer's disease, macular degeneration, and glaucoma.
|American Optometric Association (AOA)|
|243 North Lindbergh Boulevard|
|St. Louis, MO 63141|
The American Optometric Association (AOA), which is a national organization of optometrists, can provide information on eye health and eye problems.
|P.O. Box 429098|
|San Francisco, CA 94142-9098|
EyeCare America is a public service program of the Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology. This site aims to raise awareness about eye diseases and eye care. It has information about eye conditions, treatments, and general eye health. You can check to see if you qualify for a free eye exam.
|80 Maiden Lane|
|New York, NY 10038|
This nonprofit group supports glaucoma research and provides information about this disease and the importance of early detection to help prevent blindness. The website includes online chat groups for youth and adults.
|Glaucoma Research Foundation|
|251 Post Street|
|San Francisco, CA 94108|
This nonprofit organization aims to help people prevent vision loss from glaucoma. The website has information about glaucoma and how to live with and treat it. There is also information about how to get help paying for glaucoma medicines.
|National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health|
|31 Center Drive MSC 2510|
|Bethesda, MD 20892-2510|
As part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the National Eye Institute provides information on eye diseases and vision research. Publications are available to the public at no charge. The Web site includes links to various information resources.
- American Academy of Ophthalmology (2010). Primary Angle Closure (Preferred Practice Pattern). San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology. Also available online: http://aao.org/ppp.
- American Academy of Ophthalmology (2010). Comprehensive Adult Medical Eye Evaluation, Preferred Practice Pattern. San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology. Available online: http://one.aao.org/CE/PracticeGuidelines/PPP.aspx.
- American Academy of Ophthalmology (2010). Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Suspect (Preferred Practice Pattern). San Francisco. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Also available online: http://aao.org/ppp.
- U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2005). Screening for glaucoma: Recommendation statement. Annals of Family Medicine, 3(2): 171–172. Available online: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsglau.htm.
- Shah R, Wormald RPL (2011). Glaucoma, search date May 2010. Online version of BMJ Clinical Evidence: http://www.clinicalevidence.com.
Other Works Consulted
- American Academy of Ophthalmology (2007). Vision Rehabilitation for Adults (Preferred Practice Pattern). San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology. Also available online: http://one.aao.org/CE/PracticeGuidelines/PPP.aspx.
- Salmon JF (2011). Glaucoma. In P Riordan-Eva, ET Cunningham, eds., Vaughan and Asbury’s General Ophthalmology, 18th ed., pp. 222–237. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- See JLS, Chew PTK (2009). Angle-closure glaucoma. In M Yanoff, JS Duker, eds., Ophthalmology, 3rd ed., pp. 1162–1171. Edinburgh: Mosby Elsevier.
- Tan JC, Kaufman PL (2009). Primary open-angle glaucoma. In M Yanoff, JS Duker, eds., Ophthalmology, 3rd ed., pp. 1154–1158. Edinburgh: Mosby Elsevier.
- Trobe JD (2006). The red eye. Physician's Guide to Eye Care, 3rd ed., chap. 4, pp. 47–51. San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology.
- Vass C, et al. (2007). Medical interventions for primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4).
- Walker RS, Piltz-Seymour JR (2009). When to treat glaucoma. In M Yanoff, JS Duker, eds., Ophthalmology, 3rd ed., pp. 1211–1215. Edinburgh: Mosby Elsevier.
- Yanoff M, Cameron D (2012). Diseases of the visual system. In L Goldman, A Shafer, eds., Goldman’s Cecil Medicine, 24th ed., pp. 2426–2442. Philadelphia: Saunders.
|Primary Medical Reviewer||Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine|
|Specialist Medical Reviewer||Christopher J. Rudnisky, MD, MPH, FRCSC - Ophthalmology|
|Last Revised||February 28, 2012|
Last Revised: February 28, 2012
Author: Healthwise Staff
To learn more visit Healthwise.org
© 1995-2012 Healthwise, Incorporated. Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated.