Fifth disease is a very common childhood illness. Adults can get it too. It is sometimes called slapped-cheek disease because of the rash that some people get on the face. You spread the disease by coughing and sneezing.
Fifth disease is usually a mild illness that lasts a few weeks. It can be more serious for people with weak immune systems or blood disorders, such as sickle cell disease. It can also cause problems for the baby (fetus) of a pregnant woman who gets the illness, although this isn't common.
Fifth disease is caused by a virus called human parvovirus B19. (Only humans can catch and spread fifth disease. Although there are other parvoviruses that infect animals, you cannot catch these from your pet or any other animal.)
As a rule, people can spread fifth disease only while they have flu-like symptoms and before they get a rash. Usually, by the time the rash appears, you can no longer spread the disease to anyone else. Some people, such as those who have weak immune systems or blood disorders, may be able to spread the disease for a longer time.
Symptoms usually appear 2 to 3 weeks after exposure to the virus. Early symptoms are similar to the flu—runny nose, sore throat, headache—and may be so mild that you don't notice them.
The rash comes several days later, first on the face and later over the rest of the body. It may be itchy. The rash usually fades within 5 days. For a few weeks, the rash may come back when you are out in the sun, get too warm, or are under stress. This doesn't mean the disease is worse.
Some people also get pain in their joints. This can last for several weeks or even months.
Not all people with fifth disease get a rash or feel sick.
Your doctor can diagnose fifth disease by doing a physical exam and asking questions about your medical history. The disease is easier to diagnose if you have the rash.
Tests aren't usually needed, but they may be done in some cases to confirm that you have fifth disease.
Fifth disease usually goes away on its own. Antibiotics don't help with fifth disease, because the illness is caused by a virus, not a bacteria.
Home treatment can help with symptoms until you feel better.
Try not to spread the illness. Wash your hands often, and stay home from school, day care, or work. (When the rash appears, you can return.)
If you are pregnant or have a weak immune system or certain blood disorders, see your doctor. You may need extra checkups, tests, or treatment.
Learning about fifth disease:
|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)|
|1600 Clifton Road|
|Atlanta, GA 30333|
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The CDC works with state and local health officials and the public to achieve better health for all people. The CDC creates the expertise, information, and tools that people and communities need to protect their health—by promoting health, preventing disease, injury, and disability, and being prepared for new health threats.
|KidsHealth for Parents, Children, and Teens|
|10140 Centurion Parkway North|
|Jacksonville, FL 32256|
This website is sponsored by the Nemours Foundation. It has a wide range of information about children's health, from allergies and diseases to normal growth and development (birth to adolescence). This website offers separate areas for kids, teens, and parents, each providing age-appropriate information that the child or parent can understand. You can sign up to get weekly emails about your area of interest.
Other Works Consulted
- Belazarian L, et al. (2008). Erythema infectiosum and parvovirus B19 infection section of Exanthematous viral diseases. In K Wolff et al., eds., Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine, 7th ed., vol. 2, pp. 1855–1858. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Habif TP, et al. (2005). Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease). In Skin Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment, 2nd ed., pp. 268–269. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby.
- Koch WC (2007). Parvovirus B19. In RM Kliegman et al., eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 18th ed., pp. 1357–1360. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
- Salvaggio H, Zaenglein A (2010). Parvovirus infection. In MG Lebwohl et al., eds., Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies, 3rd ed., pp. 533–535. Edinburgh: Saunders Elsevier.
|Primary Medical Reviewer||John Pope, MD - Pediatrics|
|Specialist Medical Reviewer||Christine Hahn, MD - Epidemiology|
|Last Revised||April 27, 2011|
To learn more visit Healthwise.org
© 1995-2012 Healthwise, Incorporated. Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated.